The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.
Tawfik DS, Adair KC, Palassof S, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;Epub Dec 23.
Leadership across all levels of a health system plays an important role in patient safety. In this study, researchers administered the Safety, Communication, Operational, Reliability, and Engagement (SCORE) survey to 31 Midwestern hospitals to evaluate how leadership behaviors influenced burnout, safety culture, and engagement. Findings indicate that local leadership behaviors are strongly associated with healthcare worker burnout, safety climate, teamwork climate, workload, and intentions to leave the job.
Dykes PC, Curtin-Bowen M, Lipsitz S, et al. JAMA Health Forum. 2023;4:e225125.
Patient falls are associated with poorer clinical outcomes, and increased costs to the health system. This study describes the economic costs of implementing the Fall Tailoring Interventions for Patient Safety (Fall TIPS) Program in eight American hospitals. Results show the Fall TIPS program reduced falls by 19%, avoiding over $14,000 of costs per 1,000 patient days.
Hawkins SF, Morse JM. Glob Qual Nurs Res. 2022;9:233339362211317.
Medication administration is a complex set of tasks completed many times per day for hospitalized patients. This study captures the turbulence of nursing work, the nursing environment, and how that impacts patient safety. The results suggest organizations should re-evaluate current attempts at improving medication administration safety and include nurses in identifying new solutions.
Seidelman JL, Mantyh CR, Anderson DJ. JAMA. 2023;329:244-252.
Surgical site infections (SSIs) remain a significant cause of preventable post-operative morbidity and mortality. This narrative review summarizes modifiable and nonmodifiable patient-related factors. It also evaluates modifiable operation-related factors associated with surgical site infections, and highlights six pre-, intra-, and postoperative strategies to reduce surgical site infections, including use of the WHO surgical safety checklist.
Chew MM, Rivas S, Chesser M, et al. J Patient Saf. 2023;19:23-28.
Provision of enteral nutrition (EN) is a specialized process requiring careful interdisciplinary teamwork. After discovering significant issues with ordering, administration, and documentation of EN, this health system updated its workflows to improve safety. EN therapies were added to the electronic medication administration record (MAR) and the barcoding system was updated. After one year, all EN orders were barcode scanned and nearly all were documented as given or included a reason why they were not given.
Salmon PM, King B, Hulme A, et al. Safety Sci. 2022;159:106003.
Organizations are encouraged to proactively identify patient safety risks and learn from failures. This article describes validity testing of systems-thinking risk assessment (Net-HARMS) to identify risks associated with patient medication administration and an accident analysis method (AcciMap) to analyze a medication administration error.
Moon SEJ, Hogden A, Eljiz K. BMJ Open Qual. 2022;11:e002057.
Health systems often implement innovative quality improvement and patient safety initiatives, but the longevity and sustainability of these initiatives remains a challenge. This scoping review explored the factors which enable and hinder sustainability of hospital-wide quality improvement (QI) initiatives. Three overarching themes were identified – the role of (1) people, including the organizational and leadership teams, as well as frontline staff implementing the QI initiatives, (2) processes, such as local and organizational integration and planning for sustainability, and (3) the organizational environment such as resources, infrastructure, and hospital culture.
Krombach JW, Zürcher C, Simon SG, et al. Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med. 2022;42:101186.
Checklists have been highlighted as a cognitive aid to decrease omissions of care in surgery and other routine and critical events. This study evaluated a pre- and post-anesthesia induction checklist to determine the omission rate and impact on patient safety. Use of the checklist reduced omission rates significantly during both pre- and post-induction periods. However omission remained high at 32% and 40%, respectively and use of the checklists remained low.
Wells JM, Walker VP. Health Promot Pract. 2023:152483992211451.
Addressing racism in healthcare is a patient safety priority. This article discusses how an active presence by hospital threat management systems (e.g., hospital-employed security, local law enforcement personnel) in pediatric emergency departments (EDs) can help ensure patient safety but also contributes to unsafe care due to racial stereotypes and threat perception among minority patients and caregivers. The authors outline patient-centered strategies at the individual-, intra-organizational-, and extra-organizational levels for responding to disruptive and violent events.
Bushuven S, Trifunovic-Koenig M, Bentele M, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19:16016.
Healthcare workers (HCWs) who are involved in serious adverse events may feel traumatized by those events, and many organizations have implemented “second victim” training programs to support their workers. This study sought to understand HCWs’ motivations to attend such trainings and a potential association with overconfidence. Understanding the association may help organizations develop effective training programs and increase motivation to attend them.
Abrams R, Conolly A, Rowland E, et al. J Adv Nurs. 2023;Epub Jan 16.
Speaking up about safety concerns is an important component of safety culture. In this study, nurses in a variety of fields shared their experiences with speaking up during the COVID-19 pandemic. Three themes emerged: the ability to speak up or not, anticipated consequences of speaking up, and responses, or lack thereof, from managers.
Corby S, Ash JS, Florig ST, et al. J Gen Intern Med. 2022;Epub Nov 16.
Medical scribes are increasingly being utilized to reduce the time burden on clinicians for electronic health record (EHR) documentation. In this secondary analysis, researchers identified three themes for safe use of medical scribes: communication aspects, teamwork efforts, and provider characteristics.
Van der Voorden M, Ahaus K, Franx A. BMJ Open. 2023;13:e063175.
Patient engagement in healthcare is widely encouraged, but findings from some studies suggest that patient participation can have negative effects. This qualitative study with 16 patients and obstetric healthcare professionals examined the negative effects of patient participation in healthcare. Researchers identified four types of negative consequences from patient participation in safety – decreases in patient confidence, eroding of the patient-professional relationship, unwanted increases in patient responsibility, and excess time spent by professionals on the patient.
Kwon CS, Duzyj C. Am J Perinatol. 2022;Epub Dec 30.
Effective teamwork is critical for patient safety and numerous training strategies exist for improving team dynamics. The labor and delivery unit of an American hospital offered Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) training to all physicians and nurses on the ward, and assessed perceptions of teamwork and safety both before and six months after training. Results were mixed, and physician and nurse perceptions of safety significantly differed.
Reyes AM, Royan R, Feinglass J, et al. JAMA Surg. 2023;Epub Jan 18.
Delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to poor outcomes. In this population-based retrospective longitudinal study using inpatient and emergency department discharge data from four states, researchers found that non-Hispanic Black patients were at higher risk for delayed diagnosis of appendicitis compared to White patients. This increased risk for delayed diagnosis translated into higher risks for postoperative 30-day readmission rates. The researchers found that this risk was mitigated when Black patients received care at hospitals serving a more diverse patient population.
Järvinen TLN, Rickert J, Lee MJ, et al. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2013-2023.
This quarterly commentary explores a wide range of subjects associated with patient safety, such as the impact of disruptive behavior on teams, the value of apologies, and safety challenges due to COVID-19. Older materials are available online for free.
Bates DW, Levine DM, Salmasian H, et al. New Engl J Med. 2023;388:142-153.
An accurate understanding of the frequency, severity, and preventability of adverse events is required to effectively improve patient safety. This study included review of more than 2,800 inpatient records from 11 American hospitals with nearly one quarter having at least one preventable or not preventable adverse event. Overall, approximately 7% of all admissions included at least one preventable event and 1% had a severity level of serious or higher.
Woodier N, Burnett C, Moppett I. J Patient Saf. 2022;19:42-47.
Reporting and learning from adverse events is a core patient safety activity. Findings from this scoping review indicate limited evidence demonstrating that reporting and learning from near-miss events improves patient safety. The authors suggest that future research further explore this relationship and establish the effectiveness of system-level actions to avoid near misses.
Children with complex care needs present unique challenges for both parents and clinical teams. This commentary offers a physician-parent’s perspective on weaknesses in the care system that decreased medication safety for her child and also decreased patient-centeredness, including lack of a respect for the family as care team members.
Dillner P, Eggenschwiler LC, Rutjes AWS, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2022;Epub Dec 26.
Retrospective error detection methods, such as trigger tools, are widely used to uncover the incidence and characteristics of adverse events (AE) in hospitalized children. This review sought AEs identified by three trigger tools: Global Trigger Tool (GTT), the Trigger Tool (TT) or the Harvard Medical Practice Study (HMPS) method. Results from the trigger tools were widely variable, similar to an earlier review in adult acute care, and suggest the need for strengthening reporting standards.
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