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Kaya GK. Appl Ergon. 2021;94:103408.
A systems approach provides a framework to analyze errors and improve safety. This study uses the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to analyze risks related to pediatric sepsis treatment process. Fifty-four safety recommendations were identified, the majority of which were organizational factors (e.g., communication, organizational culture).
Pilosof NP, Barrett M, Oborn E, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021;18(16):8391.
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to dramatic changes in healthcare delivery. Based on semi-structured interviews and direct observations, researchers evaluated the impact of a new model of remote inpatient care using telemedicine technologies in response to the pandemic. Intensive care and internal medicine units were divided into contaminated and clean zones and an integrated control room with audio-visual technologies allowed for remote supervision, communication, and support. The authors conclude that this model can increase flexibility in staffing via remote consultations and allow staff to supervise and monitor more patients without compromising patient and staff safety.
Li Q, Hu P, Kang H, et al. J Nutr Health Aging. 2020;25(4):492-500.
Missed and delayed diagnosis are a known cause of preventable adverse events. In this cohort of 107 patients with severe or critical COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, 45% developed acute kidney injury (AKI). However, nearly half of those patients (46%) were not diagnosed during their stay in the hospital. Patients with undiagnosed AKI experienced greater hospital mortality than those without AKI or diagnosed AKI. Involvement of intensive care kidney specialists is recommended to increase diagnostic awareness.
Koike D, Nomura Y, Nagai M, et al. Int J Qual Health Care. 2020;32(6):522-530.
Nontechnical skills are gaining interest as one way to enhance surgical team performance and patient safety. In this single-center study, the authors found that a perioperative bundle that introduced nontechnical skills to the surgical team was effective in reducing operative time.   
Sharara-Chami R, Sabouneh R, Zeineddine R, et al. Simul Healthc. 2020;15(5):303-309.
Simulation training is used by hospitals to improve patient care. This article describes the use of a preparedness assessment and training intervention featuring in situ simulations followed by debriefing to prepare staff for challenges arising due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Observations and debriefings identified several latent safety threats related to infection control, leadership, and communication.
Librov S, Shavit I. J Pain Res. 2020;13:1797-1802.
This retrospective study evaluated the impact of a pre-sedation checklist on serious adverse events among children treated with ketamine and propofol in a pediatric emergency department. There were significantly more serious adverse events recorded after the implementation of the checklist.  
Aghili M, Neelathahalli Kasturirangan M. JBI Evid Implement. 2021;19(1):21-30.
This study evaluated the impact of clinical pharmacist-led interventions on medication errors and preventable adverse drug events among patients in the ICU. The clinical pharmacist performed medication chart review, patient monitoring, and attended medical rounds in order to evaluate the appropriateness of the pharmacological treatment, identify and report drug-related issues, and provide evidence-based recommendations for the management of medication errors. When the pharmacist’s recommendations were implemented by prescribing physicians, approximately half of medication errors were intercepted before reaching the patient, resulting in fewer preventable adverse drug events.
Kim J-sung, Bae H-J, Sohn CH, et al. Crit Care. 2020;24(1):305.
Overcrowding in the emergency department (ED) can adversely impact patient safety. This study conducted at a single ED found that maximum ED occupancy rates were positively correlated with in-hospital cardiac arrest over a 3.5-year period, but occupancy rates were not correlated with ED mortality.
Wee LE, Fua T‐P, Chua YY, et al. Acad Emerg Med. 2020;27(5):379-387.
This article describes the use of a broad suspect case criteria for detecting COVID-19 in the emergency department of one large, hospital in Singapore. Both the initial official case criteria and the broadened case definition, which included patients presenting with acute respiratory disease with no alternative etiology and a history of travel or residence in a country with ongoing local transmission were used with the broadened criteria having higher sensitivity. The broader criterion may increase the numbers of suspected positive cases but can help minimize nosocomial ED transmission.
Cai H, Tu B, Ma J, et al. Med Sci Monit. 2020;26:e924171.
Production pressure – the pressure to continue to work at maximum capacity – presents risks to patient safety. This study reported on a survey of 534 healthcare providers and hospital staff in the Hunan province of China about the psychological impact of COVID-19. Respondents cited moral and social responsibility as being the strongest driver to continue working long hours during the outbreak and expressed anxiety and concerns regarding their safety, the safety of their families, and high mortality among their patients. Recognition of healthcare staff by hospital management and government, strong infection control guidelines, and specialized equipment and facilities for the management of COVID‑19 were reported as factors that mitigated psychological burnout.
Cho K-J, Kwon O, Kwon J-myoung, et al. Crit Care Med. 2020;48(4):e285-e289.
This study compared an artificial intelligence (AI)-based early warning system using machine learning with conventional trigger methods for predicting deterioration among hospitalized patients, defined as in-hospital cardiac arrest resulting in ICU admissions. The AI system accurately predicted deterioration and was more accurate than conventional methods, demonstrating its potential effectiveness in EHR-based rapid response systems.
Aldawood F, Kazzaz Y, AlShehri A, et al. BMJ Open Qual. 2020;9.
This study reports on results of completing TeamSTEPPS training by leadership and staff in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at one hospital in Saudi Arabia. The team implemented a daily safety huddle aimed at improving communication and early identification and timely resolution of patient safety issues. Over a 7-month period, 340 safety issues were addressed; the majority involved infection control and medication errors (32%), communication issues (24%) and documentation issues (17%). The authors observed that the daily huddle addressed misconceptions and misunderstandings between nursing and medical teams leading to improved care delivery.
Eslami K, Aletayeb F, Aletayeb SMH, et al. BMC Pediatr. 2019;19:365.
Medication errors are thought to be common in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This study compared the incidence of medication errors occurring in two NICUs over a three-month period. Over the study period, there were an average of 3.38 medication errors per patient and three-quarters of neonates experienced at least one error. Preterm neonates experienced medication errors significantly more often than term neonates. Errors in prescription dosage and administration were the most common errors.
Zhu L, Reychav I, McHaney R, et al. Int J Risk Saf Med. 2019;30:129-153.
Understanding the contributors to adverse events helps to identify ways to prevent future events. This study used natural language processing (NLP) strategies and social network analysis (SNA) to explore the underlying behaviors contributing to adverse events, and suggested institutional-level approaches to reducing these events. 
Abe T, Tokuda Y, Shiraishi A, et al. Crit Care. 2019;23:202.
This retrospective study sought to determine whether timely diagnosis of the site of infection affected in-hospital mortality for sepsis. Investigators found that patients whose infection site was misdiagnosed on admission had more than twofold greater odds of dying in the hospital compared to those with the correct infection site diagnosed on admission. These results reinforce the importance of correct and timely diagnosis for sepsis outcomes.
Patel S, Robertson B, McConachie I. Anaesthesia. 2019;74(7):904-914.
Medication administration mistakes can result in serious patient harm. This review explored human factors that contribute to spinal anesthesia administration errors. The authors documented organizational, supervisory, system, and individual factors that contributed to errors. They recommend strategies to prevent such incidents, including the use of double checks and improved labeling practices.
Rönnerhag M, Severinsson E, Haruna M, et al. J Adv Nurs. 2019;75:585-593.
Inadequate communication in obstetrics can compromise safety. In this qualitative study, researchers conducted focus groups of multidisciplinary teams including obstetricians, midwives, and nurses working in a single maternity ward to examine their perceptions of adverse events during childbirth. Analysis of data collected suggests that support for high-quality interprofessional teamwork is important for safe maternity care.
Lee W-H, Zhang E, Chiang C-Y, et al. J Patient Saf. 2019;15:61-68.
Trigger tools and incident reporting are widely utilized methods for detecting harm in health care. The most useful method for capturing safety events in the emergency department remains unknown. In this prospective observational study, researchers assessed a monitoring system designed to detect adverse events in the emergency department of an academic medical center over a 1-year period. The system included two event reporting methods and five trigger tools. Of the 285 adverse events identified during the study period, 77.2% were captured by reporting systems, 26% by trigger tools, and 3.2% by both approaches. In keeping with prior research, the authors conclude that the use of a combination of methods for capturing harm is more effective than the use of a singular approach. A past PSNet perspective highlighted the importance of feedback with regard to incident reporting.
Antony J, Zarin W, Pham B', et al. BMJ Open. 2018;8:e020170.
Various factors affect the safety of women and infants during childbirth. This review identified randomized controlled trials that examined various combinations of clinician education, team enhancement, and auditing as tactics to address problems, litigation, and costs resulting from safety events in obstetrics.
Liu D, Gan R, Zhang W, et al. J Clin Pathol. 2018;71:67-71.
Autopsies are an underutilized tool for identifying diagnostic errors. Researchers evaluated 117 autopsies for patients in Shanghai whose cause of death was disputed or required third-party investigation. Diagnostic errors that would have altered treatment or survival were found in nearly 61%. This number is higher than estimates from a previous systematic review, likely because all patients in this sample had a disputed cause of death.