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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 2193 Results
Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality.
The comprehensive unit-based safety program (CUSP) approach emphasizes improving safety culture through a continuous process of reporting and learning from errors, improving teamwork, and engaging staff at all levels in safety efforts. Available on demand and live, this session covers how to utilize CUSP, including understanding and addressing challenges to implementation. The next virtual session will be held April 18-19, 2023.
Cohen AL, Sur M, Falco C, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2022;9:476-484.
Clinical reasoning is now a common method to improve diagnostic decision making, and several tools have been developed to assess learners’ clinical reasoning. In this study, hospital faculty and pediatric interns used the Assessment of Reasoning Tool (ART) to assess, teach, and guide feedback on the interns’ clinical reasoning. Faculty and interns report the ART framework was highly structured, specific, formative, and facilitated goal setting.
Balshi AN, Al-Odat MA, Alharthy AM, et al. PLoS ONE. 2022;17:e0277992.
Many hospitals have implemented rapid response teams (RRT) that are activated when a patient starts exhibiting prespecified criteria to prevent adverse outcomes. This before and after study compared nurse-activated RRT and automated activation. Non-invasive bedside sensors monitored patients’ vital signs and automatically sent alerts to the RRT based on prespecified clinical signs. Compared to the before period, there were lower rates of CPR, higher rates of successful CPR, shorter lengths of stay, and lower hospital mortality.
Portland, OR: Oregon Patient Safety Commission.
This site provides data and analysis from two Oregon Patient Safety Commission patient safety initiatives: the Patient Safety Reporting Program (PSRP) and Early Discussion and Resolution (EDR) effort. The review of 2021 PSRP data discusses the impact of the state adverse event reporting program and upcoming initiative to examine how organizational safety effort prioritization affects care in Oregon. The 2022 EDR analysis discusses the uptake of the program to generate conversations with patients and providers after a patient safety incident occurred.
Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality. January 31 and February 2, 2023.
Team training programs seek to improve communication and coordination among team members to reduce the potential for medical error. This virtual workshop will train participants to design, implement, and evaluate team training programs in their organizations based on the TeamSTEPPS model. 
Engel JR, Lindsay M, O'Brien S, et al. J Nurs Adm. 2022;52:511-518.
Alert fatigue occurs when healthcare workers become desensitized to alarms over time, especially when alarms tend to be clinically nonsignificant, and therefore, ignored or not responded to. This study reports on one health system’s redesign of cardiac monitoring structure to reduce alert fatigue. Through a four-phase quality improvement project, three hospitals were able to decrease alarms by 74-95% and sustained the results for 12 months.

Hare R, Tyler ER, Tapia A, Fan L, et al. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; November 2022. AHRQ Publication No. 22(23)-0008.

The AHRQ Surveys on Patient Safety Culture™ (SOPS®) Hospital Survey Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture ask health care providers and staff about the extent to which their organizational culture supports patient safety. The SOPS Workplace Safety Supplemental Item Set for Hospitals was designed for use in conjunction with the AHRQ Hospital Survey to help hospitals assess the extent to which their organization’s culture supports workplace safety for providers and staff. This data analysis found “Protection From Workplace Hazards” as the highest-scoring composite measure and “Addressing Workplace Aggression From Patients or Visitors” as the lowest-scoring composite measure. An average of 34% of healthcare providers and staff experienced symptoms of “Work Stress/Burnout” which represents a 4-percentage point increase from the 2021 pilot study results.

ISMP Medication Safety Alert! Acute care edition. November 17, 2022;27(23).

Enteral feeding tube medication delivery presents safety challenges that can cause harm. This article highlights problems with feed tube medication administration. It shares improvement recommendations that include best practice adherence, standardization, monitoring, and patient engagement.
Leapfrog Group
Drawing from data reported by the Leapfrog Hospital Survey, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), this website provides grades for hospitals in the United States based on their safety. The Fall 2022 hospital safety grade results, representing the 10th anniversary of the program, are available. A 2019 report from the Armstrong Institute examines avoidable death associated with grading hospitals. 
Starmer AJ, Spector ND, O'Toole JK, et al. J Hosp Med. 2023;18:5-14.
I-PASS is a structured handoff tool to enhance communication during patient transfers and improve patient safety. This study found that I-PASS implementation at 32 hospitals decreased major and minor handoff-related adverse events and improved key handoff elements (e.g., frequency of handoffs with high verbal quality) across provider types and settings.
Sephien A, Reljic T, Jordan J, et al. Med Educ. 2022;Epub Oct 1.
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) includes work hour restrictions in its Common Program Requirements. The focus of this review is the impact of resident work hour restrictions on patient- and resident-level outcomes. Shorter shift hours were associated with some improved resident outcomes and but no association with patient outcomes.
WebM&M Case November 16, 2022

A 61-year-old women with a mechanical aortic valve on chronic warfarin therapy was referred to the emergency department (ED) for urgent computed tomography (CT) imaging of the right leg to rule out an arterial clot. CT imaging revealed two arterial thromboses the right lower extremity and an echocardiogram revealed a thrombus near the prosthetic heart valve. The attending physician ordered discontinuation of warfarin and initiation of a heparin drip.

Hare R, Tapia A, Tyler ER, Fan L, et al. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; October 2022. AHRQ Publication No. 22(23)-0066.

Instituting a culture of safety is fundamental to ensuring patient and staff safety. The AHRQ Surveys on Patient Safety Culture™ (SOPS®) Hospital Survey is a validated survey that has been widely used to assess patient safety culture since 2004. The 2022 report includes data from 400 hospitals. The highest “percent positive” composite measure scores included both effective teamwork and supervisor, manager, or clinical leader support for suggestions for improving patient safety, and addressing patient safety concerns. Overall, when asked to rate their unit/work area on patient safety, 67 percent of respondents rated their unit/work area as “Excellent” or “Very Good.”
Andraska EA, Phillips AR, Asaadi S, et al. J Surg Educ. 2023;80:102-109.
Patients and clinicians may hold implicit gender biases and rate women clinicians more negatively. In this study, adverse event reports written about residents were reviewed to determine if resident gender was associated with different types and frequency of incident reports. The most comment complaint about men physicians involved a medical error, while the most common complaint type about women included a communication-related event. Additionally, women were more frequently identified by name only, without a title such as “doctor”.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
In this annual publication, AHRQ reviews the results of the National Healthcare Quality Report and National Healthcare Disparities Report. The 2022 report discusses a decrease in life expectancy due to the COVID-19 pandemic. It also reviews the current status of special areas of interest such as maternity care, child and adolescent mental health, and substance abuse disorders. 
Girotra S, Jones PG, Peberdy MA, et al. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2022;15:e008901.
Rapid response teams (RRTs) have been implemented at hospitals worldwide, despite mixed results in their effectiveness. The aim of this study was to compare expected mortality rates with mortality rates following RRT implementation, adjusted for hospital case mix. Of 56 hospitals that participated in this project and had complete data, only four showed lower-than-expected mortality rates and two showed higher-than-expected mortality, suggesting RRT may not reduce mortality rates as much as earlier studies have reported.
Loving VA, Nolan C, Bessel M. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:599-608.
The Safety-II perspective emphasizes improving patient safety by focusing on what goes right in healthcare, rather than on errors or what goes wrong (Safety-I). This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of an organizational, asset-based quality improvement tool to complement existing practices (such as peer review and incident reporting) and provide an additional avenue to identify best practices and successful quality improvement initiatives.
Bocknek L, Kim T, Spaar P, et al. Patient Safety. 2022;4:39-47.
Duplicate medication orders, defined as orders for two or more identical medications or same therapeutic class, can result in serious complications if they reach the patient. This study examined the error type (same medication, therapeutic class, or order), when they were recognized, and factors contributing to the error. Importantly, of duplicate orders in the same therapeutic class, the three most common medications were anti-coagulants, a high-risk medication.
Redmond S, Barwise A, Zornes S, et al. Health Serv Insights. 2022;15:117863292211235.
Various factors – including organizational, interpersonal clinician, and patient factors – can contribute to diagnostic errors and delays. This survey of 220 clinicians explored the perceived frequency of different factors contributing to diagnostic errors or diagnostic delay. Findings suggest that system and processes, care team interactions, provider factors, cognitive factors, and patient factors were perceived to contribute to diagnostic error and delay with similar frequency.

Washington, DC: VA Office of the Inspector General; September 15, 2022. Report no. 22-00815-232.

Care coordination failures reduce the effectiveness of communication, information transfer, and patient monitoring to the determent of safety. This report examines the current state of interfacility transfers in 45 veteran facilities to find that, while process requirements were basically met, improvements could be made to medication list transfer, nursing communication, and general service evaluation.