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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 346 Results
Bates DW, Levine DM, Salmasian H, et al. New Engl J Med. 2023;388:142-153.
An accurate understanding of the frequency, severity, and preventability of adverse events is required to effectively improve patient safety. This study included review of more than 2,800 inpatient records from 11 American hospitals with nearly one quarter having at least one preventable or not preventable adverse event. Overall, approximately 7% of all admissions included at least one preventable event and 1% had a severity level of serious or higher.
Nilsson L, Lindblad M, Johansson N, et al. Int J Nurs Stud. 2022;138:104434.
Nurse-sensitive outcomes are important indicators of nursing safety. In this retrospective study of 600 patient records from ten Swedish home healthcare organizations, researchers found that 74% of patient safety incidents were classified as nursing-sensitive and that the majority of those events were preventable. The most common types of nursing-sensitive events were falls, pressure injuries, healthcare-associated infections, and incidents related to medication management.
Świtalski J, Wnuk K, Tatara T, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19:15354.
Improving patient safety in long-term care facilities is an ongoing challenge. This systematic review identified three types of interventions that can improve safety in long-term care facilities – (1) promoting safety culture, (2) reducing occupational stress and burnout, and (3) increasing medication safety.
Pollock BD, Dykhoff HJ, Breeher LE, et al. Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes. 2023;7:51-57.
The COVID-19 pandemic dramatically impacted healthcare delivery and raised concerns about exacerbating existing patient safety challenges. Based on incident reporting data from three large US academic medical centers from January 2020 through December 2021, researchers found that patient safety event rates did not increase during the COVID-19 pandemic, but they did observe a relationship between staffing levels during the pandemic and patient safety event rates.
Dynan L, Smith RB. Health Serv Res. 2022;57:1235-1246.
Nurses play a critical role in ensuring patient safety, and prior research has shown that better nurse-staffing ratios and nurse engagement can improve mortality rates. This study of nearly 300 Florida acute-care hospitals evaluated the effect of expenditures on continuing nurse education staffing ratios of several AHRQ Patient Safety Indicators (PSI). Increased spending on both improved outcomes in catheter-related blood stream infections, pressure ulcers, and deep vein thrombosis.
Almqvist D, Norberg D, Larsson F, et al. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2022;74:103330.
Interhospital transfers pose a serious risk to patients. In this study, nurse anesthetists and intensive care nurses described strategies to ensure safe transport for patients who are intubated or who may require intubation. Strategies include clear and adequate communication between providers prior to transport, stabilizing and optimizing the patient’s condition, and ensuring that appropriate drugs and equipment are prepared and available.
Oura P, Sajantila A. J Public Health Res. 2022;11:227990362211399.
Although patient safety is a national priority, preventable harm among patients remains high. After analyzing national death certificate data from 1999 through 2019, researchers in this study found that medical adverse events were listed as the underlying cause of death in 0.24% of deaths. From 2014 to 2019, researchers identified a nearly 16% annual increase in deaths attributed to adverse events, primarily driven by procedure-related adverse events and possibly related to the implementation of ICD-10 in 2015.
Crunden EA, Worsley PR, Coleman SB, et al. Int J Nurs Stud. 2022;135:104326.
Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers, categorized as a never event, are underreported, particularly when related to medical devices. Interviews with experts in hospital-acquired pressure ulcers revealed four domains related to reporting: 1) individual health professional factors, 2) professional interactions, 3) incentives and resources, and 4) capacity for organizational change. Teamwork, openness, and feedback were seen as the main facilitators to reporting, and financial consequences was a contributing barrier.
Hunt J, Gammon J, Williams S, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22:1446.
Isolation for infection prevention and control may result in unintended consequences for patient safety. Using focus groups at two hospitals, this study explored healthcare staff understanding of infection prevention practices and patient safety culture within insolation settings. Thematic analysis highlights the importance of engaged leadership, appropriate staffing, teamwork, and prioritization of patient-centered care in achieving a culture of safety and improvements in infection prevention.

Eldeib D. ProPublica. November 13, 2022.

Pregnancy is recognized as a high-risk condition for both mother and infant. This news story examines the potential for stillbirth and its preventability. Lack of respect for the concerns of mothers, inadequate attention to research, and poor patient education are discussed as contributors to stillbirth.
Wilson M-A, Sinno M, Hacker Teper M, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:680-685.
Achieving zero preventable harm is an ongoing goal for health systems. In this study, researchers developed a five-part strategy to achieve high-reliability and eliminate preventable harm at one regional health system in Canada – (1) engage leadership, (2) develop an organization-specific patient safety framework, (3) monitor specific quality aims (e.g., high-risk, high-cost areas), (4) standardize the incident review process, including the use of root cause analysis, and (5) communicate progress to staff in real-time via electronic dashboards. One-year post-implementation, researchers observed an increase in patient safety incident reporting and improvements in safety culture, as well as decreases in adverse events such as falls, pressure injuries and healthcare-acquired infections.
WebM&M Case November 16, 2022

A 61-year-old women with a mechanical aortic valve on chronic warfarin therapy was referred to the emergency department (ED) for urgent computed tomography (CT) imaging of the right leg to rule out an arterial clot. CT imaging revealed two arterial thromboses the right lower extremity and an echocardiogram revealed a thrombus near the prosthetic heart valve. The attending physician ordered discontinuation of warfarin and initiation of a heparin drip.

Boamah SA, Hamadi HY, Spaulding AC. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e1090-e1095.
Medicare’s Hospital-Acquired Condition (HAC) Reduction Program financially incentivizes hospitals to reduce HAC rates and earlier research has shown hospitals in more diverse areas have higher odds of performing poorly. This study compares HAC reduction in Magnet and non-Magnet hospitals and examines potential racial and ethnic disparities. Similar to an earlier study, Magnet hospitals had significant improvements in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) rates, but not other HACs.

Millenson M. Forbes. September 16, 2022.

Unnecessary medication infusions indicate weaknesses in medication service processes. While no harm was noted in the case discussed, the actions by the patient’s family to initiate an examination of the incident were rebuffed, patient disrespect was demonstrated, a near miss incident report was absent, and data omissions took place. The piece discusses how these detractors from safety were all present at the hospital involved.
Brown TH, Homan PA. Health Serv Res. 2022;57:443-447.
Structural racism, from race-adjusted algorithms to biased machine learning, contributes to and exacerbates health inequities. This commentary calls for developing valid measures of structural racism and a publicly available data infrastructure for researchers. A related study examined the relationship between structural racism and birth outcomes between Black and white patients in Minnesota.

Farnborough, UK: Healthcare Safety Investigation Branch; 2022. HSIB Report no. NI-005831

This report summarizes the work of an independent office that examines maternity care safety lapses in the United Kingdom. It discusses the number of investigations done, criteria for investigation selection and primary improvement themes drawn from the review of 706 investigations in the period covered which include clinical assessment and oversight, care escalation, and fetal monitoring. The report outlines the goal to establish a maternity review effort as an independent entity in 2023.
Moore T, Kline D, Palettas M, et al. J Nurs Care Qual. 2023;38:55-60.
Fall prevention is a safety priority in hospital settings. This study found that Smart Socks – socks containing pressure sensors that detect when a patient is trying to stand up – reduced fall rates among patients at risk of falls in one hospital’s neurological and neurosurgical department. Over a 13-month period, investigators observed a decreased fall rate (0 per 1000 patient days) among patients wearing Smart Socks compared to prior to intervention implementation (4 per 1000 patient days).
Soto C, Dixon-Woods M, Tarrant C. Arch Dis Child. 2022;107:1038-1042.
Children with complex medical needs are vulnerable to patient safety threats. This qualitative study explored the perspectives of parents with children living at home with a central venous access device (CVAD). Parents highlight the persistent fear of central line-associated blood stream infections as well as the importance of maintaining a sense of normalcy for their children.
Barclay ME. JAMA Health Forum. 2022;3:e221006.
The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) provides individual and composite quality and safety ratings (i.e., star ratings) for hospitals and other healthcare facilities on its Care Compare website. This study evaluated three alternative methods for rating facilities and compared them to the CMS star ratings. Hospitals were frequently assigned a different star rating using the alternate methods, typically between adjacent star categories.
Stockwell DC, Kayes DC, Thomas EJ. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e877-e882.
Striving for “zero harm” in healthcare has been advocated as a patient safety goal. In this article, the authors discuss the unintended consequences of “zero harm” goals and provide an alternative approach emphasizing learning and resilience goals (leveled-target goal setting, equal emphasis goals, data-driven learning, and developmental – rather than performance – goals).