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Stuijt CCM, Bekker CL, van den Bemt BJF, et al. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2021;17(8):1426-1432.
This multicenter prospective study explored the effect of medication reconciliation on patient-reported, potential adverse events post-discharge. Although the intervention – which consisted of a pharmacy team providing patient both education and medication review upon admission and discharge as well as information transfer to primary care – did not decrease the proportion of patients with adverse events, it did reduce the number of potential adverse events.

ECHO-Care Transitions (ECHO-CT) intends to ensure continuity of care and alleviate the risk of patient safety issues, notably medication errors, occurring because of hospital transition. With funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC) adapted Project Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes (ECHO) to connect receiving multidisciplinary skilled nursing facility (SNF) teams with a multidisciplinary team at the discharging hospital. Within one week of discharge, hospital providers discuss each patient’s transitional and medical issues with providers at the SNF using videoconferencing technology. The innovation has successfully reduced patient readmission and SNF length of stay.

Alshehri GH, Keers RN, Carson-Stevens A, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17(5):341-351.
Medication errors are common in mental health hospitals. This study found medication administration and prescribing were the most common stages of medication error. Staff-, organizational-, patient-, and equipment-related factors were identified as contributing to medication safety incidents.
Stolldorf DP, Ridner SH, Vogus TJ, et al. Implement Sci Commun. 2021;2(1):63.
Implementing effective interventions supporting medication reconciliation is an ongoing challenge. Using qualitative data, the authors explored how different hospitals implemented one evidence-based medication reconciliation toolkit. Thematic analyses suggest that the most commonly used implementation strategies included restructuring (e.g., altered staffing, equipment, data systems); quality management tools (e.g., audit and feedback, advisory boards); thorough planning and preparing for implementation; and education and training with stakeholders.
Kabir R, Liaw S, Cerise J, et al. J Pharm Pract. 2021:089719002110212.
The best possible medication history (BPMH) is the gold standard of medication reconciliation of a patient’s prescribed and over-the-counter medications. In this study, Certified Pharmacy Technicians (CPhTs) obtained BPMH from patients admitted through the emergency department. In Quality Assurance reviews, the CPhTs identified medication discrepancies at a similar rate to pharmacists, indicating that CPhTs may be a cost-effective alternative to pharmacists in obtaining BPMH.
Killin L, Hezam A, Anderson KK, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2021;47(7):438-451.
Medication errors at hospital discharge are a common cause of medication errors and adverse drug events (ADE). This review compared three types of discharge medication reconciliation: paper-based, electronic, and enhanced. Results suggest electronic medication reconciliation reduced the odds of a medication discrepancy or ADE, as compared to paper-based. Results were mixed on enhanced medication reconciliation.
Singh D, Fahim G, Ghin HL, et al. J Pharm Pract. 2021;34(3):354-359.
Pharmacist-led medication reconciliation has been found to reduce medication discrepancies for some patients. This retrospective study examined the impact of pharmacist-conducted medication reconciliation among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While pharmacist-conducted medication reconciliation identified medication dosing and frequency errors, it did not reduce 30-day readmission rates for patients with COPD.
Schnipper JL, Reyes Nieva H, Mallouk M, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2021;Epub May 1.
Medication reconciliation aims to prevent adverse events during transitions of care, but implementing effective interventions supporting medication reconciliation has proven challenging. Building upon lessons learned in the MARQUIS1 study, this pragmatic quality improvement study (MARQUIS2) implemented a refined toolkit including system-level and patient-level interventions as well as physician mentors providing remote coaching and in-person site visits. Across 17 hospital sites, the intervention was associated with a significant decrease in unintentional mediation discrepancies over time.
Kurteva S, Habib B, Moraga T, et al. Value Health. 2021;24(2):147-157.
Harms related to prescription opioid use are an ongoing patient safety challenge. Based on data from one hospital between 2014 and 2016, this cohort study found that nearly 50% of hospitalized patients were discharged with an opioid prescription, and 80% of those prescriptions were among patients discharged from a surgical unit. Opioid-related medication errors were more common in handwritten discharge prescriptions compared to electronic prescriptions; electronic prescriptions were associated with a 69% lower risk of opioid-related medication errors.
Cicci CD, Fudzie SS, Campbell-Bright S, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2021;78(8):736-742.
When patients are admitted to the intensive care unit, medication histories can be obtained from alternate sources. In this study, admission medication histories were obtained from family members or outpatient pharmacies, then compared with the history given by the patient once their delirium resolved or they were extubated. The most common type of discrepancy from both alternate sources was addition, followed by omission. Histories obtained from families had slightly fewer discrepancies, and most discrepancies were of low risk of harm.  
Volpi E, Giannelli A, Toccafondi G, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17(3):e143-e148.
Medication errors are a common and significant causes of patient harm. This retrospective study examined regional prescription registry (RPR) data at a single Italian hospital at 4 comparison points, pre-admission, admission, hospitalization, and post-discharge. Researchers identified 4,363 discrepancies among 14,573 prescriptions originating from 298 patients with a mean age of 71.2 years. Approximately one third of the discrepancies (1,310) were classified as unintentional and the majority (62.1%) of those were found when comparing the prescriptions during the transition from  hospital discharge and the 9-month follow up. The study points to the need for enhanced communication between hospitalists and primary care providers at the hospital-home interface.
Harper A, Kukielka E, Jones RM. Patient Safety. 2021;3(1):10-22.
Although medication reconciliation is a common strategy to improve medication safety, barriers to implementation and threats to safety persist. Based on events reported to the Pennsylvania Patient Safety Reporting System, the authors characterized serious events related to medication reconciliation. The most common process failures contributing to patient harm occurred during order entry/transcription and resulted most frequently in the wrong dose or dose omission. The authors suggest risk reduction strategies including defined clinician roles for medication reconciliation, listing the indication for prescribed medications, and adding anticonvulsants to processes for medication with high risk for harm.
Emonds EE, Pietruszka BL, Hawley CE, et al. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2021;Epub Feb 9.
The “Hospital at Home’ program provides inpatient medical treatment (such as intravenous medications, daily laboratory monitoring, and basic imaging) to patients in their home under close clinician supervision. The authors found that integration of a pharmacist into the program enabled detection and resolution of medication discrepancies, which contributed to cost savings from medication dispensing and avoided early hospital discharge.

A 93-year-old man on warfarin with chronic heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and a ventricular assist device (VAD) was admitted to the hospital upon referral from the VAD team due to an elevated internal normalized ratio (INR) of 13.4. During medication review, the hospital team found that his prescribed warfarin dose was 4 mg daily on Mondays and Fridays and 3 mg daily on all other days of the week; this prescription was filled with 1 mg tablets. However, his medication list also included an old prescription for 5 mg tablets.

Elbeddini A, Almasalkhi S, Prabaharan T, et al. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2021;14(1):10.
Medication reconciliation can improve patient safety, but prior research has documented challenges with implementation. Researchers conducted a gap analysis to inform the development of standardized medication reconciliation framework for use across multiple healthcare settings to reduce harm, including during the COVID-19 pandemic. Five key components were identified: (1) pharmacy-led medication reconciliation team, (2) patient education and involvement, (3) complete and accurate medication history, (4) admission and discharge reconciliation, and (5) interprofessional communication.
Dellinger JK, Pitzer S, Schaffler-Schaden D, et al. BMC Geriatr. 2020;20(1):506.
Polypharmacy in older adults is common and may increase risk of medication-related adverse events. This study found that an intervention combining educational training, tailored health information technology, and a therapy check process improved medication appropriateness in nursing home residents.  
Herges JR, Garrison GM, Mara KC, et al. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2020;Epub Oct 10.
The goal of medication reconciliation is to prevent adverse events by identifying unintended medication discrepancies during transitions of care. This retrospective cohort evaluated the impact of attending a pharmacist-clinician collaborative (PCC) visit after hospital discharge with their medication containers on risk of 30-day readmission. Among adult patients on at least 10 total medications, findings indicate no significant difference in 30-day hospital readmission risk between patients presenting to a PCC visit with their medication containers compared with patients who did not. However, when patients did present to their PCC visit with medication containers, pharmacists identified more medication discrepancies and resolved more medication-related issues.
Harper PG, Schafer KM, Van Riper K, et al. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2020;Epub Sept 14.
This article a systematic team-based care approach to medication reconciliation implemented in four family medicine residency clinics. After implementation, there was a significant increase in the number of visits with physician-documented medication reconciliation and this increase was sustained one year later.
Parro Martín M de los Á, Muñoz García M, Delgado Silveira E, et al. J Eval Clin Pract. 2021;27(1):160-166.
Researchers analyzed medication errors occurring in the trauma service of a single university hospital in Spain to inform the development and implementation of a set of measures to improve the safety of the pharmacotherapeutic process. The Multidisciplinary Hospital Safety Group proposed improvement measures that intend to involve pharmacists in medication reconciliation, increase the use of medication reconciliation in the emergency and trauma departments, and incorporate protocols and alerts into the electronic prescribing system.