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The PSNet Collection: All Content

The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.

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Displaying 1 - 20 of 229 Results
Averill P, Vincent CA, Reen G, et al. Health Expect. 2022;Epub Nov 12.
Patient safety research on inpatient psychiatric care is expanding, but less is known about outpatient mental health patient safety. This review of safety in community-based mental health services revealed several challenges, including defining preventable safety events. Additionally, safety research has focused on harm caused by the patient instead of harm caused by mental health services, such as delays in access or diagnosis.
McCain N, Ferguson T, Barry Hultquist T, et al. J Nurs Care Qual. 2023;38:26-32.
Daily huddles can improve team communication and awareness of safety incidents. This single-site study found that implementation of daily interdisciplinary huddles increased reporting of near-miss events and improved team satisfaction and perceived team communication, collaboration, and psychological safety.
Krvavac S, Jansson B, Bukholm IRK, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19:10686.
Inpatient suicide is sentinel event. This study examined treatment patterns among patients undergoing inpatient or outpatient psychiatric treatment who died by suicide. The research team found that patients who were primarily treated with medications were less likely to be sufficiently monitored, whereas patients who received both psychotherapy and medication were more likely to receive inadequate treatment.
Fröding E, Vincent C, Andersson-Gäre B, et al. Arch Suicide Res. 2022;Epub Oct 19.
Earlier research shows many investigations into suicide deaths are conducted to fulfill regulatory requirements, rather than to improve suicide-prevention interventions. This review identified six problems with investigations (e.g., failure to consider deeper system perspective) and proposed a new model of investigation which considers suicide a patient harm.
Riblet NB, Varela M, Ashby W, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:503-512.
Preventing suicide among patients with a mental health diagnosis is a National Patient Safety goal. This study evaluated the impact of the WHO Brief Intervention and Contact (BIC) Program on suicide after psychiatric discharge at six Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers. After implementation, nearly 82% of patients exhibited positive treatment engagement. Participating healthcare staff reported that the program was easy to use and implement but noted that insufficient staffing and patient loss-to-follow-up can impede program success. A previous WebM&M case and commentary discusses suicide after discharge.
FitzGerald C, Mumenthaler C, Berner D, et al. BMC Med Ethics. 2022;23:86.
Patients with obesity and mental illness face both explicit and implicit bias that negatively impact their healthcare. This study of psychiatric and general internal medicine physicians analyzed implicit and explicit bias towards patients with mental illness and/or obesity. Results varied by specialty, physician age, gender, and experience level.
Patient Safety Primer September 27, 2022
Burnout is an occupational phenomenon that is highly prevalent among health care professionals. Current work focuses on understanding burnout and clinician well-being as system-level concerns that can adversely influence safety, quality, and organizational performance.

Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; 2022.  SAMHSA Publication No. PEP22-06-02-005.

Behavioral health workers are particularly susceptible to burnout, which sets the stage for unsafe care. This guide highlights organizational strategies to amend six thematic conditions in the behavioral health setting that degrade worker wellbeing: workload; control; reward, promotion, and career development; community; fairness; and values.
Zipperer L, Ryan R, Jones B. J Patient Saf Risk Manag. 2022;27:201-208.
Implicit biases and stigma can negatively impact health care provided to patients with substance use disorders such as alcohol use disorder (AUD). This narrative review concluded that patients with AUD are frequently undiagnosed and not appropriately referred for treatment or treated. The authors cite barriers to effective care for patients with AUD, including poor integration and coordination between medical care and behavioral health care in the United States.
Berg SH, Rørtveit K, Walby FA, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22:967.
Inpatient suicides are considered a never event. Based on patient and provider interviews and a literature review, this paper describes the development of resilience in inpatient psychiatric settings. The main theme is establishment of relationship of trust between patients and providers.
Ramsey L, McHugh SK, Simms-Ellis R, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e1203-e1210.
Patients and families can contribute unique insights into medical errors. This qualitative evidence review concluded that patients and families value involvement in patient safety incident investigations but highlight the importance of addressing the emotional aspects of care (e.g., timely apology, prioritizing trust and transparency). Healthcare staff perceived patient and family involvement in investigations to be important, but cited several barriers (e.g., staff turnover, fears of litigation) to effective investigations.
Barnes T, Fontaine T, Bautista C, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e704-e713.
Patient safety event taxonomies provide a standardized framework for data classification and analysis. This taxonomy for inpatient psychiatric care was developed from existing literature, national standards, and content experts to align with the common formats used by the institution’s event reporting system. Four domains (provision of care, patient actions, environment/equipment, and safety culture) were identified, along with categories, subcategories, and subcategory details.
Shiner B, Gottlieb DJ, Levis M, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2022;31:434-440.
Previous research has emphasized suicide prevention in inpatient mental health settings, but less is known about suicide in outpatient settings. Using longitudinal data from 2013 to 2017, this study found no relationship between overall quality of outpatient mental healthcare and suicide rates among patients treated by the Veterans Health Administration healthcare system.
Riblet NB, Gottlieb DJ, Watts BV, et al. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2022;210:227-230.
Unplanned discharges (also referred to as leaving against medical advice) can lead to adverse patient outcomes. This study compared unplanned discharges across Veterans Health Affairs (VHA) acute inpatient and residential mental health treatment settings over a ten-year period and found that unplanned discharges are significantly higher in mental health settings. The authors recommend that unplanned discharges be measured to assess patient safety in mental health.
Otachi JK, Robertson H, Okoli CTC. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2022;58:2383-2393.
Workplace violence in healthcare settings can jeopardize the safety of both patients and healthcare workers. This study found that over half of healthcare workers at one large academic medical center in the United States reported witnessing or experiencing workplace violence. Witnessing or experiencing workplace violence was most common in psychiatric settings and in the emergency department.  
Martin K, Bickle K, Lok J. Int J Mental Health Nurs. 2022;31:897-907.
Cognitive biases can compromise decision making and contribute to poor care. In this study, nurses were provided two patient vignettes as well as associated clinical notes written using either biased or neutral language and asked to make clinical decisions regarding PRN (“as needed”) medication administration for sleep. The study identified a relationship between biased language and clinical decision-making (such as omitting patient education when administering PRN medications).
Brierley-Jones L, Ramsey L, Canvin K, et al. Res Involv Engagem. 2022;8:8.
Patient engagement in safety efforts is encouraged, but patients are less often included as active participants in designing patient safety interventions. This review identified 52 studies that included mental health patients in the design, delivery, implementation, and/or evaluation of patient safety research. The authors argue that increased inclusion of patients in safety research may lead to development of higher quality safety interventions.

Garb HN. Psyche. March 22, 2022.

A wide array of biases can affect clinical judgement and contribute to diagnostic error. This article discusses the impact of implicit biases, test inaccuracy, and data weaknesses in diagnosis of mental health conditions in both children and adults. The author provides recommendations for clinicians and researchers to reduce the impact of bias on diagnosis.
WebM&M Case January 7, 2022

An 18-year-old man with a history of untreated depression and suicide attempts (but no history of psychiatric hospitalizations) was seen in the ED for suicidal ideation after recent gun purchase. Due to suicidal ideation, he was placed on safety hold and a psychiatric consultation was requested. The psychiatry team recommended discharge with outpatient therapy; he was discharged with outpatient resources, the crisis hotline phone number, and strict return precautions.

Bryant BE, Jordan A, Clark US. JAMA Psych. 2022;79:93-94.
Research and medical practice are negatively affected by systemic and implicit bias. This commentary discusses this phenomenon in the mental health sector and suggests a role for researchers to reduce the inappropriate use of race in psychiatric practice while limiting its detrimental impact on care nationwide.