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The medication-use process is highly complex with many steps and risk points for error, and those errors are a key target for improving safety. This Library reflects a curated selection of PSNet content focused on medication and drug errors. Included resources explore understanding harms from preventable medication use, medication safety improvement strategies, and resources for design.

Winning AM, Merandi J, Rausch JR, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17(8):531-540.
Healthcare professionals involved in a medical error often experience psychological distress. This article describes the validation of a revised version of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST-R), which was expanded to include measures of resilience and desired forms of support.

Newcastle upon Tyne, UK: Care Quality Commission; September 2021.

The safety of maternity care is threatened by inequity. This report analyzes a set of United Kingdom investigation reports to identify issues affecting maternity care to determine their prevalence elsewhere in the system. Problems identified include poor leadership and teamwork, as well as learning and cross-service collaboration.
Marufu TC, Bower R, Hendron E, et al. J Pediatr Nurs. 2021;Epub Sep 12.
Medication errors threaten patient safety and can result in adverse outcomes. This systematic review identified seven types of nursing interventions used to reduce medication administration errors in pediatric and neonatal patients: education programs, medication information services, clinical pharmacist involvement, double checking, barriers to reduce interruptions during drug calculation and preparation, use of smart pumps, and improvement strategies (e.g., checklists, process or policy changes). Meta-analysis pooling results from various types of interventions demonstrated a 64% reduction in medication administration errors.
Loren DL, Lyerly AD, Lipira L, et al. J Patient Saf Risk Manag. 2021;26(5):200-206.
Effective communication between patients and providers – including after an adverse event – is essential for patient safety. This qualitative study identified unique challenges experienced by parents and providers when communicating about adverse birth outcomes – high expectations, powerful emotions, rapid change and progression, family involvement, multiple patients and providers involved, and litigious environment. The authors outline strategies recommended by parents and providers to address these challenges.
Finney RE, Czinski S, Fjerstad K, et al. J Pediatr Nurs. 2021;61:312-317.
The term “second victim” refers to a healthcare professional who was involved in a medical error and subsequently experiences psychological distress. An American children’s hospital implemented a peer support program for “second victims” in 2019. Healthcare providers were surveyed before and after implementation of the program with results showing the highest ranked option for support following a traumatic clinical event is peer support. Most respondents indicated they were likely to use the program if a future clinical event were to occur.

Manchester, UK: Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman; October 2021.

This report examines a premature infant death associated with failings of antibiotic administration, deterioration recognition and action on family concerns both during treatment and post-incident. The report issues a series of recommendations building on standard remediation guidance in the United Kingdom.

Medication administration errors are a common source of patient harm. Developed at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC), MED.Safe is an automated software package designed to monitor high-risk intravenous (IV) medications in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and identify medication administration discrepancies.

Kaya GK. Appl Ergon. 2021;94:103408.
A systems approach provides a framework to analyze errors and improve safety. This study uses the Systems Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) to analyze risks related to pediatric sepsis treatment process. Fifty-four safety recommendations were identified, the majority of which were organizational factors (e.g., communication, organizational culture).
Combs CA, Einerson BD, Toner LE. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2021;225(5):b43-b49.
Maternal and newborn safety is challenged during cesarean delivery due to the complexities of the practice. This guideline recommends specific checklist elements to direct coordination and communication between the two teams engaged in cesarean deliveries. The guideline provides a sample checklist and steps for its implementation.

Ensuring maternal safety is a patient safety priority. This library reflects a curated selection of PSNet content focused on improving maternal safety. Included resources explore strategies with the potential to improve maternal care delivery and outcomes, such as high reliability, care standardization, teamwork, unit-based safety initiatives, and trigger tools.

MedWatch Safety Alert. Silver Spring, MD: US Food and Drug Administration; August 20, 2021.

Delays in treatment due to device misuse or design flaws can result in patient harm. This recall announcement highlights the omission of instructions describing a distinct device feature that, if a surgeon is unaware of it, reduces emergent umbilical vein catheter placement safety. Two deaths have been reported due to problems with the device.
Patrick NA, Johnson TS. Nurs Womens Health. 2021;25(3):212-220.
Improving maternal safety is a patient safety priority in the United States. This article reviews the unique impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal and newborn populations, such as implications for maternity care, maternal-newborn separation, and universal testing. Based on experiences at a maternal-fetal medicine clinic in a tertiary care center in Wisconsin, the authors describe practice changes to maintain safety, minimize COVID-19 transmission, and optimize patient safety during the pandemic.
Haidari E, Main EK, Cui X, et al. J Perinatol. 2021;41(5):961-969.
High levels of healthcare worker (HCW) burnout may be associated with lower levels of patient safety and quality. In June 2020, three months into the COVID-19 pandemic, 288 maternity and neonatal HCWs were asked about their perspectives on well-being and patient safety. Two-thirds of respondents reported symptoms of burnout and only one-third reported adequate organizational support to meet these challenges. Organizations are encouraged to implement programs to reduce burnout and support HCW well-being.
English M, Ogola M, Aluvaala J, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(4):326-332.
Health systems are encouraged to proactively identify patient safety risks. In the first of a two-part series, the authors draw on the  Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) framework  to discuss the strengths and challenge of a low-resource newborn unit from a systems perspective and SEIPS’ implications for patient safety.
Vincent CA, Mboga M, Gathara D, et al. Arch Dis Child. 2021;106(4):333-337.
In the second of a two-part series, using examples from newborn units, the authors present a framework for supporting practitioners in low-resource settings to improve patient safety across four areas: (1) prioritizing critical processes, (2) improving the organization of care, (3) control of risks, and (4) enhancing responses to hazardous situations.
Han D, Khadka A, McConnell M, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3(12):e2024589.
Unexpected death or serious disability of a newborn is considered a never event. A cross-sectional analysis including over 5 million births between 2011 and 2017 in the United States found unexpected newborn death was associated with a significant increase in use of procedures to avert or mitigate fetal distress and newborn complications (e.g., cesarean delivery, antibiotic use for suspected sepsis). These findings could reflect increased caution among clinicals or indicate more proactive attempts to identify and address potential complications.  
Ni Y, Lingren T, Huth H, et al. JMIR Med Inform. 2020;8(9):e19774.
Interoperability of smart pumps and electronic health record (EHR) systems can improve clinical data accuracy. This study evaluated the utility of harmonizing EHR data and smart pump records (SPRs) in detecting medication administration errors in one neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The authors found that compared with medication administration records, dosing discrepancies were more commonly detectable using integrated SPRs, which suggests that this approach may be a more reliable data source for medication error detection.
Hsu HE, Mathew R, Wang R, et al. JAMA Pediatr. 2020;174(12):1176-1183.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) and central catheter-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI), are common complications in hospitalized patients, particularly among critically-ill children. Using surveillance data from January 2013 to June 2018, the authors did not identify any significant changes in CLABSI rates in NICUs or PICUs.  These trends indicate that past gains in CLABSI rates have held, without evidence of further improvement.  The authors noted modest improvements in CAUTI rates, observing a significant decrease in CAUTI rates in the PICU, corresponding with a significant decrease in indwelling urinary catheter use.