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Gupta K, Rivadeneira NA, Lisker S, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;Epub Apr 27.
Strategies to reduce clinician burnout related to adverse events are critically needed. Physicians in the United States were surveyed on their experiences with adverse events to identify facilitators and barriers to reducing burnout. A common facilitator was peer support, and barriers included shame and a punitive work environment.
Brady KJS, Barlam TF, Trockel MT, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2022;48:287-297.
Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics to treat viral illnesses is an ongoing patient safety threat. This study examined the association between clinician depression, anxiety, and burnout and inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in outpatient care. Depression and anxiety, but not burnout, were associated with increased adjusted odds of inappropriate prescribing for RTIs.
Buhlmann M, Ewens B, Rashidi A. J Adv Nurs. 2022;Epub Apr 22.
The term “second victims” describes clinicians who experience emotional or physical distress following involvement in an adverse event. Nurses and midwives were interviewed about “moving on” from the impact of a critical incident. Five main themes were identified: Initial emotional and physical response, the aftermath, long-lasting repercussions, workplace support, and moving on. Lack of organizational support exacerbated the nurses’ and midwives’ responses.
Wailling J, Kooijman A, Hughes J, et al. Health Expect. 2022;Epub Mar 23.
Harm resulting from patient safety incidents can be compounded if investigating responses ignore the human relationships involved. This article describes how compounded harm arises, and it recommends the use of a restorative practices. A restorative approach focuses on (1) who has been hurt and their needs, and who is responsible for addressing those needs, (2) how harms and relationships can be repaired, and avenues to prevent the incident from reoccurring.

Zangaro GA, Dulko D, Sullivan D, eds. Nurs Clin North Am. 2022;57(1):1-170. 

Clinician burnout is a pervasive problem and can threaten patient safety. This special issue explores burnout among nurses and its impact across healthcare systems, approaches to recognizing burnout, and strategies for managing and reducing burnout at individual and organizational levels.
Khansa I, Pearson GD. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2022;10:e4203.
Some clinicians experience profound emotional distress following an adverse event, known as the “second victim” phenomenon. This study of surgical residents in the US found that most residents who reported being part of a medical error had subsequent emotional distress, including guilt, anxiety, and insomnia. Importantly, while three quarters of residents reported they did not get emotional support following the event, all those who did get support reported benefiting from it.
Schattner A. J Gen Intern Med. 2022;37:664-667.
Interest in harm resulting from medical care and patient safety has evolved over several decades. This commentary discusses changes in medical harm over time and shares five areas of focus to drive improvement: time constraints, increased care options, information technology, knowledge complexity, and patient change.
Wilson C, Howell A-M, Janes G, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22:296.
Feedback is an essential component of performance improvement and patient safety. Researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with emergency medical services (EMS) professionals in the United Kingdom about their perspectives on how feedback impacts patient care and safety. Findings highlight strong desire for feedback and concerns that inadequate feedback could inhibit learning from mistakes, limit professional development, and negatively impact patient safety.

A psychologically safe environment for healthcare teams is desirable for optimal team performance, team member well-being, and favorable patient safety outcomes. This piece explores facilitators of and barriers to psychological safety across healthcare settings. Future research directions examining psychological safety in healthcare are discussed.

Armstrong Center for Patient Safety and Quality. May 20, 2022.

The Resilience in Stressful Events (RISE) program provides peer assistance for healthcare workers who experience psychological effects after involvement in stressful adverse care events. This two-part virtual session presents RISE implementation education and orientation for staff to respond when peer support is needed.
Logan‐Athmer AL. J Healthc Risk Manag. 2022;Epub Feb 28.
High reliability organizations (HROs) often operate in complex, hazardous conditions and have fewer adverse events. Based on qualitative interviews with organizational leaders and front-line supervisors, the researchers of this study identified seven themes relating to necessary leadership skillsets for HRO adoption – nonhierarchical leadership; transparent, continuous communication; deference to expertise; ability to innovate; motivation through recognition; self-reflection; and commitment to visibility.

ISMP Medication Safety Alert! Acute care edition. February 24, 2022; 27(4):1-5; March 10, 2022; 27(5):1-5.

Disrespect for co-workers, peers, and patients degrades safety in the care environment. Part I of this article series summarizes results from a 2021 survey as the latest installment of a long-standing examination of the prevalence of disrespectful behaviors. The results found that poor behaviors are common, a wide array of  unprofessional behaviors are encountered in the workplace, and how they affect safety. Part II shares strategies to decrease the presence and impact of disrespectful behaviors in health care which include creation of confidential reporting systems and support structures.

Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization and International Labour Organization; 2022. ISBN 9789240040779.

Workforce well-being emerged as a key component of patient safety during the COVID-19 crisis. This report supplies international perspectives for informing the establishment of national regulations and organization-based programs to strengthen efforts aiming to develop health industry workforce health and safety strategies.
Hatfield M, Ciaburri R, Shaikh H, et al. Hosp Pediatr. 2022;12:181-190.
Workplace violence in health care settings can adversely affect the safety of healthcare workers and patients. Baseline responses from 309 pediatric physicians, nurses, and residents at one hospital revealed that the majority have received verbal threats from patients or family members. Offensive behavior from patients or family members was commonly based on provider age, gender, race/ethnicity, or appearance. After an interprofessional training intervention focused on addressing and reporting mistreatment, providers reported increased reporting knowledge, self-efficacy, and reporting behaviors.
AMA J Ethics. 2022;23:E931-936.
Disrespectful behavior detracts from the work culture needed to provide safe care. This commentary discusses a case involving disrespectful behavior toward a surgical resident that resulted in lack of the raising of a concern. The piece examines the role teams play in enabling poor behavior and their responsibility to address each situation as a component of a safety culture.
Rivera-Chiauzzi EY, Smith HA, Moore-Murray T, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e308-e314.
Peer support programs are increasingly used to support clinicians involved in adverse events. This evaluation found that a structured peer support program for providers involved in obstetric adverse events can effectively support providers in short periods of time (for example, 92% of participants did not need follow-up after second peer support contact) and can be initiated with limited resources.
Marr R, Goyal A, Quinn M, et al. BMC Health Serv Res. 2021;21:1330.
Many hospitals are implementing programs to support clinicians involved in adverse events (‘second victims’). Researchers interviewed 12 representatives of second victim programs in the United States about the experiences of their programs. The article discusses representative feedback regarding the importance of identifying a need for second victim programs and services, perceived challenges to program success, structural changes after program implementation, and insights for success.   
Klatt TE, Sachs JF, Huang C-C, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2021;47:759-767.
This article describes the implementation of a peer support program for “second victims” in a US healthcare system. Following training, peer supporters assisted at-risk colleagues, raised awareness of second victim syndrome, and recruited others for training. The effectiveness of the training was assessed using the Second Victim Experience Support Tool. The most common event supported was inability to stop the progress of a medical condition, including COVID-19.