The AHRQ PSNet Collection comprises an extensive selection of resources relevant to the patient safety community. These resources come in a variety of formats, including literature, research, tools, and Web sites. Resources are identified using the National Library of Medicine’s Medline database, various news and content aggregators, and the expertise of the AHRQ PSNet editorial and technical teams.
Krvavac S, Jansson B, Bukholm IRK, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022;19:10686.
Inpatient suicide is sentinel event. This study examined treatment patterns among patients undergoing inpatient or outpatient psychiatric treatment who died by suicide. The research team found that patients who were primarily treated with medications were less likely to be sufficiently monitored, whereas patients who received both psychotherapy and medication were more likely to receive inadequate treatment.
Patient safety event taxonomies provide a standardized framework for data classification and analysis. This taxonomy for inpatient psychiatric care was developed from existing literature, national standards, and content experts to align with the common formats used by the institution’s event reporting system. Four domains (provision of care, patient actions, environment/equipment, and safety culture) were identified, along with categories, subcategories, and subcategory details.
Martin K, Bickle K, Lok J. Int J Mental Health Nurs. 2022;31:897-907.
Cognitive biases can compromise decision making and contribute to poor care. In this study, nurses were provided two patient vignettes as well as associated clinical notes written using either biased or neutral language and asked to make clinical decisions regarding PRN (“as needed”) medication administration for sleep. The study identified a relationship between biased language and clinical decision-making (such as omitting patient education when administering PRN medications).
Keers RN, Plácido M, Bennett K, et al. PLoS One. 2018;13:e0206233.
This interview study used a human factors method, the critical incident technique, to identify underlying factors in medication administration errors in a mental health inpatient facility. The team identified multiple interconnected vulnerabilities, including inadequate staffing, interruptions, and communication challenges. The findings underscore the persistence of widely documented medication safety administration concerns.
Hemingway S, McCann T, Baxter H, et al. Int J Nurs Pract. 2015;21:733-40.
Medication errors are common in mental health care. This survey of nurses and nursing students identified interruptions and insufficient medication knowledge as major barriers to ensuring medication safety in outpatient mental health.
Cottney A, Innes J. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2015;24:65-74.
In this prospective observational study at a psychiatric hospital, errors were identified in 3% of medication administration episodes, with omission being the most common error type. As in prior studies, interruptions and higher patient volume were associated with increased risk of mistakes.
Haw C, Stubbs J, Dickens GL. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2014;21:797-805.
Researchers interviewed mental health nurses to determine perceived obstacles to reporting medication administration errors or near misses. Many factors were identified, including insufficient knowledge, fear of consequences, or burden of work associated with reporting. These have also been cited as reasons for under-reporting of errors in prior nursing studies.
Kelly T, Roper C, Elsom S, et al. Int J Ment Health Nurs. 2011;20:371-9.
This qualitative study demonstrated marked similarities between nurse and consumer perspectives for safe patient identification. Technical aids, such as wristbands and photographs, were deemed important but not replacements for the nurse–patient encounter.
Adverse drug events have been documented as a significant problem in inpatient psychiatric facilities, but methods of preventing errors in this setting have not been researched. This study, conducted at an academic inpatient psychiatric hospital, combined a computerized provider order entry system with a structured event reporting system that was used by physicians, nurses, and pharmacists. Implementation of the system was associated with a significant reduction in both prescribing errors and medication administration errors over a 5-year period.
Rothschild JM, Mann K, Keohane CA, et al. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2007;29:156-62.
The authors analyzed the incidence and type of medication errors and adverse drug events in a psychiatric hospital. They found that errors were common in this setting and were frequently associated with physician orders.
Sawamura K, Ito H, Yamazumi S, et al. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2005;59:379-84.
The authors analyzed incident reports from Japanese long-term care psychiatric units to understand the relationship between environmental, organizational, and human factors elements of drug administration and how they affect the interception of errors.
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