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A psychologically safe environment for healthcare teams is desirable for optimal team performance, team member well-being, and favorable patient safety outcomes. This piece explores facilitators of and barriers to psychological safety across healthcare settings. Future research directions examining psychological safety in healthcare are discussed.

National Confidential Inquiry into Suicide and Safety in Mental Health. Manchester, UK: University of Manchester; May 31, 2021

System failures require multifactorial assessment to install targeted improvements. This toolkit examines 10 areas of focus for organizations to assess the safety of mental health services in emergent and primary care settings to minimize patient suicide and self-harm. Areas of focus include post-discharge follow-up, admissions, and family engagement.
Waddell AE, Gratzer D. Can J Psychiatry. 2021:070674372110365.
Safety gaps in mental health care offers a limited view if focused primarily on patient suicide. This commentary calls for Canadian psychiatric professionals to examine the safety of their patients from a system perspective to develop a research and practice improvement strategy.
Mackenhauer J, Winsløv J-H, Holmskov J, et al. Crisis. 2021;Epub May 19.
Prior research has found that patients who die by suicide often had recent contact with the healthcare setting. Based on a multi-year chart review at one institution, the authors concluded that suicide risk assessment and documentation in the heath record to be insufficient. The authors outline quality improvement recommendations focused on improving documentation, suicide assessment and intervention training, and improving communications with families, caregivers, and other health care providers.
Hunt DF, Bailey J, Lennox BR, et al. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2021;15:33.
Psychological safety has been widely studied in a variety of settings, clinical areas, and patient outcomes. This commentary lays out the benefits of safety culture and how it can be implemented organization-wide, with a particular focus on mental health organizations. Specific interventions are discussed, including family involvement, leadership communication, and simulation.
Tyler N, Wright N, Panagioti M, et al. Health Expect. 2021;24:185-194.
Transitions of care represent a vulnerable time for patients. This survey found that safety in mental healthcare transitions (hospital to community) is perceived differently by patients, families, and healthcare professionals. While clinical indicators (e.g., suicide, self-harm, and risk of adverse drug events) are important, patients and families also highlighted the social elements of transitional safety (e.g., loneliness, emotional readiness for change).
Sharma AE, Yang J, Del Rosario JB, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2021;47:5-14.
Ambulatory care settings are receiving increased attention as a focus for patient safety improvements. Using data from a multistate patient safety organization (PSO) database, the researchers sought to characterize patterns and characteristics of patient safety incidents reported in ambulatory care settings. Analyses found that 5.9% of events resulted in severe harm and 1.9% resulted in patient death. Over half of the events were from outpatient subspecialty care; fewer events occurred in home/community (5.2%), primary care (2.1%), or dialysis (2.0%) settings. Medication-related events were most common, followed by clinical deterioration and falls. Predictors of higher harm included diagnostic errors, patient/caregiver challenges, and events occurring in home/community or psychiatric settings. These results can help ambulatory care settings target safety events and develop systems-level prevention strategies.  
Salas E, Bisbey TM, Traylor AM, et al. Ann Rev Org Psychol Org Behav. 2020;7:283-313.
This review discusses the importance of teamwork in supporting safety, psychological states driving effective safety performance, organizational- and team-level characteristics impacting safety performance, and the role of teams in safety management.

Nicklin W, Hughes L, eds. Patient Safety. Healthc Q. 2020;22(Sp2):1-128.

Articles in this special issue report on initiatives undertaken by the Canadian National Patient Safety Consortium with a focus on the effect patient partnerships on initiative priority areas including never events, safety culture and homecare safety improvements.
Martin GP, Chew S, Dixon-Woods M. Health (London). 2021;25:757-774.
After findings of gross negligence, the National Health Service (NHS) introduced ‘Freedom to Speak Up Guardians’ to lead safety culture change with the ultimate goal that speaking up about safety issues becomes the norm. The authors used semi-structured interviews with 51 individuals (e.g., Guardians, clinicians, policymakers/regulators, etc.) to describe the rollout of the Guardians. These interviews revealed that the role of the Guardians is rich in potential but that the initial narrow role of addressing only quality and safety concerns was not consistent with the myriad of complex issues brought to them and may indicate the need to expand the role definition.
Mello MM, Frakes MD, Blumenkranz E, et al. JAMA. 2020;323:352-366.
This systematic review synthesized evidence from 37 studies to examine the association between malpractice liability risk and healthcare quality and safety. The review found no evidence of association between liability risk and avoidable hospitalizations or readmissions, and limited evidence supporting an association between risk and mortality (5/20 studies) or patient safety indicators or postoperative complications (2/6 studies).

Sentinel Event Alert. July 30, 2019;(61):1-5.

Anticoagulant medications are known to be high-risk for adverse drug events. Although direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) require less monitoring than warfarin, they are still associated with an increased risk of patient harm if not prescribed and administered correctly. The Joint Commission has issued a new sentinel event alert to raise awareness of the risks related to DOACs, and in particular, the challenges associated with stopping bleeding in patients on these medications. The alert suggests that health care organizations develop patient education materials, policies, and evidence-based guidelines to ensure that DOACs and reversal agents are used appropriately. A past WebM&M commentary discussed common errors related to the use of DOACs.
Mokkenstorm JK, Kerkhof AJFM, Smit JH, et al. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2018;48:745-754.
Suicide in all settings is considered a sentinel event. This commentary describes an aspirational suicide eradication program. The approach combines direct identification of suicidal behavior and treatment, system-focused process improvements, and organizational safety culture as interdependent strategies for eliminating suicide. A previous WebM&M commentary discussed a suicide attempt on an inpatient medical unit.
Division of Licensing and Regulatory Services; Maine Department of Health and Human Services.
This Web site provides information about Maine's statewide incident reporting initiative and includes annual sentinel event reports.
London, UK: National Patient Safety Agency; 2009. ISBN: 9781906624088.
This publication analyzes 72,482 medication incidents reported to the National Health Service and highlights areas for improvement and prevention.
Bates DW, Larizgoitia I, Prasopa-Plaizier N, et al. BMJ. 2009;338:b1775.
This article describes the results from a group of international clinicians, researchers,and policymakers that identified undeveloped research areas in global patient safety.
Lankshear A, Lowson K, Harden J, et al. J Adv Nurs. 2008;63.
This study demonstrated that simply designing "system" safeguards fails to prevent errors in subsequent monitoring and implementation. Investigators used three safety alerts, including latex allergy, as markers of how well these alerts were being adopted in practice by bedside nurses.
St Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Health.
The National Quality Forum has defined 29 never events—patient safety problems that should never occur, such as wrong-site surgery and patient falls. Since 2003, Minnesota hospitals have been required to report such incidents. The 2020 report summarizes information about 366 adverse events that were reported, representing a slight increase each year since the reports were first published. Pressure ulcers and fall-related injuries were the most common incidents documented. Reports from previous years are available.