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Walker D, Moloney C, SueSee B, et al. Prehosp Emerg Care. 2022;Epub Jun 27.
Safe medication management practices are critical to providing safe care in all healthcare settings. While there are studies reporting a variety of prehospital adverse events (e.g., respiratory and airway events, communication, etc.), there have been few studies of medication errors that occur in prehospital settings. This mixed methods systematic review of 56 studies and case reports identifies seven major themes such as organizational factors, equipment/medications, environmental factors, procedure-related factors, communication, patient-related factors, and cognitive factors as contributing to safe medication management.
Wolf L, Gorman K, Clark J, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;Epub May 25.
Human factors play an important role in contributing to and preventing adverse events. This study found that integrating human factors into a new root cause analysis process led to an increase in the number of strong interventions implemented after adverse events.
Mariyaselvam MZA, Patel V, Young HE, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e387-e392.
A retained foreign object can lead to serious clinical consequences and is considered a never event. Researchers analyzed a national patient safety incident database to identify factors contributing to guidewire retention and potential preventative measures. Findings indicate that most retained guidewires are identified after the procedure. The authors suggest that system changes or design modifications to central venous catheter equipment is one approach to prevent guidewire attention.
Hamad DM, Mandell SP, Stewart RM, et al. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2022;92:473-480.
By analyzing errors that lead to preventable or potentially preventable deaths in trauma care, healthcare organizations can develop mitigation strategies to prevent those errors from reoccurring. This study classified events anonymously reported by trauma centers using the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations Patient Safety Event Taxonomy. Mitigation strategies were most often low-level, person-focused (e.g., education and training).
Schulman PR. J Contingencies Crisis Manage. 2022;30:92-101.
High reliability organizations (HROs) are those that operate in highly complex domains, such as aviation, with no or very few significant errors. This commentary describes the relationship between error and uncertainty in HROs using the increased uncertainties brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic as an example.
Gibney BT, Roberts JM, D'Ortenzio RM, et al. RadioGraphics. 2021;41:2111-2126.
Hospitals are increasingly creating and updating their emergency disaster response plans. This guide assists hospital executives, quality & safety professionals, and risk managers by assessing potential hazards or failures in radiology departments in the event of disaster. Disaster planning tools, checklists, and other recommendations are described.  

Murphy DR, Savoy A, Satterly T, et al. BMJ Health Care Inform. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Dashboards can provide real-time quality and safety data to frontline providers. This systematic review found limited information on the direct impact of patient safety dashboards on reducing patient safety events. The authors also note that dashboard design processes are rarely based on informatics or human factors principles, which may impede implementation and use.
Wheway JL, Jun GT. Int J Qual Health Care. 2021;33:mzab135.
This qualitative study conducted in the United Kingdom evaluated the utility of two system models – AcciMap and Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) – to better understand patient safety incident reports and develop remedial actions. Participants appreciated the unique strengths of both models but expressed concerns regarding their complexity and required training/education.
Randall KH, Slovensky D, Weech-Maldonado R, et al. Pediatr Qual Saf. 2021;6:e470.
Achieving high reliability is an ongoing goal for health care. This survey of 25 pediatric organizations participating in a patient safety collaborative identified an inverse association between safety culture and patient harm, but found that elements of high-reliability, leadership, and process improvement were not associated with reduced patient harm.
US Food and Drug Administration. October 7, 2021.
Errors of commission during complex procedures can contribute to patient harm. Drawing from an analysis of medical device reports submitted to the Food and Drug Administration, this updated announcement seeks to raise awareness of common adverse events associated with surgical staplers and implantable staples. User-related problems include opening of the staple line, misapplied staples, and staple gun difficulties. Recommendations include ensuring availability of various staple sizes and avoiding use of staples on large blood vessels.
Ottawa, ON: Canadian Patient Safety Institute; 2008.
This initative defines competency domains for safe health care and outlines educational practices to achieve them. The 2nd edition of the Patient Safety Competencies was released in 2020. 

Farnborough, UK: Healthcare Safety Investigation Branch; September 9, 2021.

In-depth failure investigations provide improvement insights for individuals and organizations alike. This report analyzes a collection of UK National Health Service incident examinations and provides recommendations for improvement on themes related to care transitions and access, decision making, communication, and point-of-care activity.

A seven-year-old girl with esophageal stenosis underwent upper endoscopy with esophageal dilation under general anesthesia. During the procedure, she was fully monitored with a continuous arterial oxygen saturation probe, heart rate monitors, two-lead electrocardiography, continuous capnography, and non-invasive arterial blood pressure measurements.

Lalani C, Kunwar EM, Kinard M, et al. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181:1217-1223.
Medical device-associated errors are common and often result in preventable patient harm. Based on medical device adverse event data reported to the FDA, this study used natural language processing to identify events not classified as deaths even though the patient died. Findings suggest that approximately 17% of medical device events that resulted in death were classified in other categories.
Leeftink AG, Visser J, de Laat JM, et al. Ergonomics. 2021:1-11.
Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is widely used to identify latent safety hazards. The authors of this study proposed combining healthcare failure mode and effect analysis (HFMEA) with computer simulation (HFMEA-CS) for prospective risk analysis of complex and potentially harmful processes. Use of HFMEA-CS to analyze medication processes during admission and discharge for patients with a rare adrenal tumor led to a reduction in drug delivery and system errors, as well as increased drug adherence.

Farnborough, UK: Healthcare Safety Investigation Branch; April 22, 2021.

Wrong-site surgery in dentistry is a frequent and persistent never event. This report examines a case of pediatric wrong tooth extraction to reveal how the application of safety standards is influenced by the work environment and discusses the use of forcing functions to create barriers to error in practice.
Isherwood P, Waterson P. J Patient Saf Risk Manag. 2021;26:64-73.
Investigating adverse events and identifying contributing factors is essential to organizational learning and improving patient safety. The authors of this article use three different methodologies – root cause analysis (RCA), human factors analysis classification system (HFACS), and AcciMap (which places emphasis on multiple levels of decision making important to risk management) – to analyze one near miss incident and illustrate how different methodologies generate different systems-level recommendations.

In this PSNet Annual Perspective, we worked with co-authors Dr. Jacqueline C. Stocking, a quality improvement and critical care specialist, and Dr. Christian Sandrock, a patient safety professional and emerging infectious diseases specialist, to provide a look at news and research related to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patient safety.