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Hindmarsh J, Holden K. Int J Med Inform. 2022;163:104777.
Computerized provider order entry has become standard practice for most medication ordering. This article reports on the safety and efficiency of ordering mixed-drug infusions before and after implementation of electronic prescribing. After implementation, rates of prescription errors, time to process discharge orders, and time between prescription and administration all decreased.
Van De Sijpe G, Quintens C, Walgraeve K, et al. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2022;22:48.
Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) can help identify potential drug-drug interactions (DDI), but they can lead to alert fatigue and threaten patient safety. Based on an analysis of DDI alerts and survey data regarding physician experience using the DDI module in the CDSS, researchers identified barriers (i.e., lack of patient-specific characteristics and DDI-specific screening intervals) that contribute to false-positive alerts and alert fatigue.
Reese T, Wright A, Liu S, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2022;79:1086-1095.
Computerized decision support alerts for drug-drug interactions are commonly overridden by clinicians. This study examined fifteen well-known drug-drug interactions and identified risk factors that could reduce risk in the majority of interactions (e.g., medication order timing, medication dose, and patient factors).
Maxwell E, Amerine J, Carlton G, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2021;78:s88-s94.
Clinical decision support (CDS) tools are intended to enhance care decision and delivery processes. This single-site retrospective study evaluated whether a CDS tool can reduce discharge prescription errors for patients receiving a medication substitution at admission. Findings indicate that use of CDS did not result in a decrease in discharge prescription omissions, duplications, or inappropriate medication reconciliation.

This commentary presents two cases highlighting common medication errors in retail pharmacy settings and discusses the importance of mandatory counseling for new medications, use of standardized error reporting processes, and the role of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) in medical decision-making and ensuring medication safety.

Koeck JA, Young NJ, Kontny U, et al. Pediatric Drugs. 2021;23:223-240.
Pediatric patients are at risk for medication prescribing errors due to weight-based dosing. This review analyzed 70 interventions aimed at reducing weight-based prescribing errors. Findings indicate that bundled interventions are most effective, and that interventions should include substitute or engineering controls (e.g., computerized provider order entry) along with administrative controls (e.g., expert consultation).
Cattaneo D, Pasina L, Maggioni AP, et al. Drugs Aging. 2021;38:341-346.
Older adults are at increased risk of hospitalization due to COVID-19 infections. This study examined the potential severe drug-drug interactions (DDI) among hospitalized older adults taking two or more medications at admission and discharge. There was a significant increase in prescription of proton pump inhibitors and heparins from admission to discharge. Clinical decision support systems should be used to assess potential DDI with particular attention paid to the risk of bleeding complications linked to heparin-based DDIs.
Kane‐Gill SL, Wong A, Culley CM, et al. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2020;69:530-538.
Medication reconciliation and medication regimen reviews can reduce adverse drug events (ADEs) in older adults. This study assessed the impact of a pharmacist-led, patient-centered telemedicine program to manage high-risk medications during transitional and nursing home care. The program included telemedicine-based medication reconciliation at admission and medication regimen reviews throughout the nursing home stay, coupled with clinical decision support. Residents in the program experienced fewer adverse drug events compared to a usual care group. This innovative model has the potential to further reduce medication errors in nursing home residents.
Chin DL, Wilson MH, Trask AS, et al. J Med Syst. 2020;44:185.
Clinical decision support (CDS) alerts can improve patient safety, and prior research suggests that monitoring alert overrides can identify errors. The researchers describe a novel approach to using existing CDS systems to detect medication prescribing errors based on drug-drug interaction and allergy alert overrides. Dose alert overrides had high sensitivity to detect medication prescribing errors occurring in an inpatient setting.
Pedersen CA, Schneider PJ, Ganio MC, et al. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2020;77:1026-1050.
This article describes results from the 2019 American Society of Health-System Pharmacists national survey regarding inpatient pharmacy practice. The authors note the increasing responsibilities placed on pharmacists and their role in addressing the opioid crisis, adopting intravenous workflow technologies, and leveraging clinical decision support tools to improve medication administration safety.
Rieckert A, Reeves D, Altiner A, et al. BMJ. 2020;369:m1822.
This study evaluated the impact of an electronic decision support tool comprising a comprehensive drug review to support deprescribing and reduce polypharmacy in elderly adults. Results indicate that the tool did reduce the number of prescribed drugs but did not significantly reduce unplanned hospital admissions or death after 24 months.
A 55-year old woman became unarousable with low oxygen saturation as a result of multiple intravenous benzodiazepine doses given overnight. The benzodiazepine was ordered following a seizure in the intensive care unit (ICU) and was not revised or discontinued upon transfer to the floor; several doses were given for different indications - anxiety and insomnia.
Classen DC, Holmgren AJ, Co Z, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2020;3.
Researchers measured the safety performance of electronic health record (EHR) systems using simulated medication orders that can lead to adverse events or death in order to evaluate how well the systems identified these errors, and the mitigating effect of computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support (CDS) tools. Safety performance increased moderately over the 10-year study period but there was considerable variation in performance based on the level of decision support (basic or more complex) and EHR vendor; safety risks persist despite EHR implementation.
After undergoing a complete atrioventricular canal defect repair, an infant with trisomy 21 was transferred to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) was ordered due to low cardiac output. When the TPN order expired, it was not reordered in time for cross-checking by the dietician and pediatric pharmacist and the replacement TPN order was mistakenly entered to include sodium chloride 77 mEq/100 mL, a ten-fold higher concentration than intended.
Edrees H, Amato MG, Wong A, et al. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2020;27:893-900.
Clinical decision support alerts can notify clinicians to potential prescribing errors and potentially avoid adverse drug events. This retrospective study evaluated over 16,000 alerts for drug-drug interactions and found that nearly 96% were overridden by providers; of these overrides, 45.4% were deemed appropriate upon chart review. Alerts for high-priority drug-drug interactions were overridden 87% of the time, and chart review determined that only 0.5% of these alerts were appropriate. The researchers found that 5.1 adverse drug events occurred per 100 overrides. 
Austin J, Barras M, Sullivan C. Int J Med Inform. 2020;135.
The authors systematically reviewed the evidence on electronic health record (EHR) interventions designed to improve the safety and quality of anticoagulation administration in inpatient hospitals settings. The 27 articles meeting inclusion criteria examined four types of interventions: computerized physician order entry (CPOE), clinical decision support systems (CDSS), dashboards, and general EHR implementation. Included studies reported reductions in medication errors and adverse drug events with use of CPOE and CDDS, but studies did not find benefits to other adverse events (e.g., bleeding events), readmissions or length of stay. Overall, the review found limited evidence demonstrating the benefit of inpatient EHR interventions in improving anticoagulation safety and quality.
Krukas A, Franklin ES, Bonk C, et al. Patient Safety. 2020;2.
Intravenous vancomycin is an antibiotic with known medication safety risk factors. This assessment is designed to assist organizations to review clinician and organizational knowledge, medication administration activities and health information technology as a risk management strategy to minimize hazards associated with vancomycin use. 
Rogero-Blanco E, Lopez-Rodriguez JA, Sanz-Cuesta T, et al. JMIR Med Inform. 2020;8.
Older patients are vulnerable to adverse drug events due to comorbidities and polypharmacy. This cross-sectional study from Spain reviewed prescriptions for 593 older adults aged 65-75 years with multiple comorbidities and documented polypharmacy to estimate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing using the STOPP and Beers Criteria. Potentially inappropriate prescribing was detected in over half of patients. The most frequently detected inappropriate prescriptions were for prolonged use of benzodiazepines (36% of patients) and prolonged use of proton pump inhibitors (45% of patients). Multiple risk factors associated with potentially inappropriate prescribing were identified, including polypharmacy and use of central nervous system drugs.
Rungvivatjarus T, Kuelbs CL, Miller L, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2020;46:27-36.
This study describes a multi-disciplinary quality improvement project aimed at increasing the percentage of completed medication reconciliations upon admission. Interventions included EHR workflow redesigns, provider training, and performance data reporting. After seven months, the project resulted in an increase in medication reconciliation at admission, and a higher percentage of medication reconciled across drug classes, including high-alert drugs.