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Shenoy A, Shenoy GN, Shenoy GG. Patient Saf Surg. 2022;16:10.
Defensive medicine refers to clinician behaviors with the intent to avoid malpractice risk due to care omissions. This article provides an overview of defensive medicine and its relationship to the taxonomies of medical errors and the risks that defensive medicine places on patients, hospital administrators, and systems, as well as clinicians.

Ridge K. London, England: Crown Copyright; 2021. September 22, 2021.

Overprescribing has attained prominence as a safety issue due to the current opioid epidemic, but it has long reduced medication safety across the spectrum of health care. The report examines the systemic and cultural issues that contribute to overprescribing and recommends a governmental leadership position to drive change and implement deprescribing and other reduction initiatives.

Boodman SG. Washington Post. January 23, 2021.

Misdiagnosis can perpetuate over a long period and delay a correct course of treatment. This news feature shares an example of depression misdiagnosis that masked the true problem of a neurological tumor manifesting in what was seen and treated as a psychological condition. 

Saks MJ, Landsman S. Health Matrix: J Law-Med. 2020;30(1):25-84.

Defensive medicine behaviors seeking to avoid malpractice risk due to care omissions challenge patient safety and value narratives. This legal discussion examines factors driving defensive medicine and reveals complexities associated with the practice and reforms submitted to address them.    
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Paris, France: OECD Publishing; 2019. ISBN: 978926474260.
The overprescribing of prescription opioids heightens the likelihood of opioid dependence and harm. This report shares data from 25 countries to provide a baseline for the current crisis. The publication illustrates the complexity of the opioid epidemic and suggests that system-focused multisector strategies are required to address the problem.
Judson TJ, Press MJ, Detsky AS. Healthc (Amst). 2019;7:4-6.
Health care is working to provide high-value care and prevent overuse while ensuring patient safety. This commentary highlights the importance of educational initiatives, mentors, and use of clinical decision support to help clinicians determine what amount of care is appropriate for a given clinical situation.
Dembosky A. All Things Considered and KQED. January 23, 2019.
Policy, practice, and communication strategies have been implemented in an effort to stem the opioid crisis and prescribing activities that contribute to misuse. This news article and accompanying webcast discuss an initiative in California that sends letters to prescribers whose patients have died due to opioid overdose. The piece outlines unintended consequences associated with the practice, including clinician reluctance to prescribe opioids for pain. An Annual Perspective discussed the patient safety aspects of the opioid epidemic.
Carroll AE. JAMA. 2017;318:1748-1749.
The provision of unneeded care can result in physical, financial, and psychological harm to patients. This commentary explores factors in health care that contribute to overtreatment and recommends reducing financial incentives for providing low-value care by increasing transparency regarding clinician conflict of interest and engaging insurers in changing clinician behaviors.
Jaffe I, Renincasa R. Morning Edition. National Public Radio. December 8–9, 2014.
Overprescribing of medications is a common problem in nursing homes. This two-part radio segment reports on the inappropriate use of antipsychotic medications as a chemical restraint for patients with dementia. The first part introduces the issue and includes insights from families that have experienced harm due to the practice. The second segment discusses programs that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has put in place to address the problem through a more patient-centered approach to care and suggests strengthening penalties against organizations that overuse antipsychotics.
Hoffman JR, Kanzaria HK. BMJ. 2014;349.
Lack of acceptance for human error and uncertainty have been known to contribute to overdiagnosis and overuse that may result in patient harm. This commentary explains why medical liability reform alone is not sufficient to address this issue. The authors suggest that both professionals and patients will need to adjust their expectations of failures in order to achieve behavior change.