Macrae C, Draycott T. Safety Sci. 2016;117:490-500.
Simulation training can enhance teamwork, identify latent problems, and contribute to improved patient outcomes. This commentary explores the value of frontline obstetric simulation to develop high reliability. The authors discuss relational rehearsal, system structuring, and practice elaboration as elements of a successful simulation-focused organizational learning initiative.
Smith AF, Plunkett E. Anaesthesia. 2019;74:508-517.
Health care leaders have embraced applying safety sciences methods to improve care delivery. This review discusses the evolution of health care safety from focusing on reactive analysis and response to error (Safety-1) to one that seeks to prevent errors through emphasizing safe system design (Safety-2). The authors advocate for developing a resilient system to examine what works well and incorporate those practices into daily work.
Hessels AJ, Paliwal M, Weaver SH, et al. J Nurs Care Qual. 2019;34:287-294.
This cross-sectional study examined associations between safety culture, missed nursing care, and adverse events. Investigators found significant associations between worse ratings of safety culture and more reports of missed nursing care. They recommend enhancing safety culture to reduce missed nursing care and improve safety.
Pattni N, Arzola C, Malavade A, et al. Br J Anaesth. 2019;122:233-244.
Effective teamwork and communication are critical to ensuring patient safety in the busy environment of the operating room. This review examined the evidence on preparing staff to challenge authority in the perioperative environment. Common themes that affect speaking up included hierarchy, organizational culture, and education. Teaching that promotes open communication in the postgraduate environment and utilizing tactics such as simulation training can help address barriers to challenging authority.
Maternal harm is a sentinel event that has garnered increased attention in both policy and clinical environments. This qualitative study combined direct observation and interviews to understand the characteristics that enabled a high-performing maternity ward to achieve their excellent safety outcomes. Investigators identified a set of specific, evidence-based safety practices including standardization, monitoring, and emphasis on technical skill. They also identified a strong and consistent safety culture and noted that structural conditions, such as staffing levels and the physical environment, supported safe outcomes. The authors conclude that all of these factors influence each other and jointly produce safety. A recent Annual Perspective summarized national initiatives to improve safety in maternity care.
Giardina TD, Haskell H, Menon S, et al. Health Aff (Millwood). 2018;37:1821-1827.
Reducing harm related to diagnostic error remains a major focus within patient safety. While significant effort has been made to engage patients in safety, such as encouraging them to report adverse events and errors, little is known about patient and family experiences related specifically to diagnostic error. Investigators examined adverse event reports from patients and families over a 6-year period and found 184 descriptions of diagnostic error. Contributing factors identified included several manifestations of unprofessional behavior on the part of providers, e.g., inadequate communication and a lack of respect toward patients. The authors suggest that incorporating the patient voice can enhance knowledge regarding why diagnostic errors occur and inform targeted interventions for improvement. An Annual Perspective discussed ongoing challenges associated with diagnostic error.
The Moore Foundation provides free access to this article.
Schwartz SP, Adair KC, Bae J, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2019;28:142-150.
Burnout is a highly prevalent patient safety issue. This survey study examined work–life balance and burnout. Researchers validated a novel survey measure for work–life balance by asking participants to report behaviors like skipping meals and working without breaks. Residents, fellows, and attending physicians reported the lowest work–life balance, and psychologists, nutritionists, and environmental services workers reported the highest work–life balance. Time of day and shift length also influenced work–life balance: day shift had better scores compared to night shift, and shorter shifts had better scores than longer shifts. The work–life balance score also clustered by the work setting: individuals with different roles within a given setting (such as the intensive care unit, the emergency department, or the clinical laboratory) had more similar work–life balance. Those with higher work–life balance reported better safety culture and less burnout. The authors suggest that burnout interventions target work settings rather than individuals, because work–life balance seems to function as a shared experience within health care settings.
Ma C, Park SH, Shang J. Int J Nurs Stud. 2018;85:1-6.
Teamwork training interventions enhance both clinical outcomes and safety culture. This cross-sectional survey found hospital units that nurses rated as more collaborative had lower rates of both hospital-acquired pressure ulcers and falls. A PSNet Interview discusses how the nursing work environment affects patient safety.
Ward ME, De Brún A, Beirne D, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15:E1182.
Change initiatives require broad-based collective design strategies to ensure the range of needs are addressed. This commentary explains how one hospital group used codesign methods to engage leadership in a teamwork and culture improvement project. The authors describe specific tools and tactics used to implement the work and summarize the value of the approach for other health care organizations.
Learning from adverse events is a core component of patient safety improvement. This review explores the application of this concept in radiation oncology, successful practices, and challenges for incident learning system implementation in the specialty.
Brown SM, Azoulay E, Benoit D, et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;197:1389-1395.
This commentary explores the results of a multidisciplinary discussion on the intersection of "respect" and "dignity" as requirements of safe care. The authors provide recommendations to encourage a strong system-level commitment to respect and dignity, which include the need to expand the research on respect in the intensive care unit and the value of responding to failures of respect as safety incidents to design mechanisms for improvement.
Just culture is a movement to shift from blame for errors and instead focus on system issues in order to enhance event reporting and learning from failures. This study examined a survey about just culture in conjunction with Hospital Compare quality ratings and AHRQ's Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The vast majority of the 270 hospitals that responded to the survey reported adopting just culture. However, respondents reported no improvement in nonpunitive response to error, indicating that a culture of blame persists. The study also found no association between hospital quality ratings and just culture implementation. The author concludes that just culture is not sufficient to create a blame-free culture in hospitals. An Annual Perspective reviewed the context of the no-blame movement and the recent shift toward a framework of a just culture.
Martin GP, Aveling E-L, Campbell A, et al. BMJ Qual Saf. 2018;27:710-717.
A work environment in which all team members feel comfortable speaking up about safety concerns is a key aspect of positive safety culture. Although formal mechanisms exist within health care institutions for raising safety issues, little is known about how such channels promote or discourage employees from speaking up. Researchers conducted interviews with 165 frontline staff and senior leaders working at three academic hospitals in two countries. They found that leaders viewed formal systems for raising concerns favorably, but other respondents felt uneasy reporting concerns through these channels. Such apprehension occurred especially if the concern was based on a general feeling that something might be wrong rather than hard evidence—what the authors refer to as "soft" intelligence. A PSNet perspective discussed how to change safety culture.
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