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A psychologically safe environment for healthcare teams is desirable for optimal team performance, team member well-being, and favorable patient safety outcomes. This piece explores facilitators of and barriers to psychological safety across healthcare settings. Future research directions examining psychological safety in healthcare are discussed.

Adie K, Fois RA, McLachlan AJ, et al. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2021;87:4809-4822.
Medication errors are a common cause of patient harm. This study analyzed medication incident (MI) reports from thirty community pharmacies in Australia. Most errors occurred during the prescribing stage and were the result of interrelated causes such as poor communication and not following procedures/guidelines. Further research into these causes could reduce medication errors in the community.
Le Cornu E, Murray S, Brown EJ, et al. J Med Radiat Sci. 2021;68:356-363.
Use of health information technology (HIT) can improve care but also lead to unexpected patient harm. In this analysis of incidents and near misses in radiation oncology, a major change in the use of the electronic health record (EHR) led to an increase in reported incidents and near misses. Leaders and HIT professionals should be aware of potential issues and develop a plan to minimize risk prior to major departmental changed including EHR changes.
Rosen IEW, Shiekh RM, Mchome B, et al. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2021;100:704-714.
Improving maternal safety is an ongoing patient safety priority. This systematic review concluded that maternal near miss events are negatively associated with various aspects of quality of life. Women exposed to maternal near miss events were more likely to have overall lower quality of life, poorer mental and social health, and suffer negative economic consequences.
Adie K, Fois RA, McLachlan AJ, et al. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2021;77:1381-1395.
Community pharmacists play an important role in patient safety. In this longitudinal study, community pharmacists reported 1,013 medication incidents, mainly at the prescribing and dispensing stages. Recommended prevention strategies included improved patient safety culture, adherence to organizational policies and procedures, and healthcare provider education.
Kundu P, Jung OS, Valle LF, et al. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2021;11:e256-e262.
Underreporting of ‘near misses’ can impede efforts to improve healthcare quality and patient safety. Based on hypothetical scenarios involving a patient with a cardiac pacemaker undergoing radiation treatment, this study surveyed healthcare staff about their evaluation of the events and their willingness to report based on their evaluation of the hypothetical scenarios. Findings suggest that cognitive biases can influence willingness to report based on how near miss events are perceived.  

Phipps D, Ashour A, Riste L, et al. The Pharmaceutical Journal. 2020;305(7943, 7944). November 10, December 1, 2020.

Dispensing mistakes are a common contributor to preventable adverse events in community pharmacies. Part 1 of this two-part series discusses factors that contribute to dispensing errors and summarizes methods for managing risks stemming from missteps. Part 2 focuses on preventing situations that enable errors and the role pharmacists have in minimizing dispensing errors in daily practice.

Diagnosis (Berl)2020;7(4):345-411.

COVID-19 is a novel coronavirus that harbors a variety of diagnostic, treatment, and management hurdles. This special issue covers a variety of clinical topics including optimal diagnostic methods, near misses, and diagnostic accuracy.   
Waterson J, Al-Jaber R, Kassab T, et al. JMIR Hum Factors. 2020;7:e20364.
Smart pumps are considered a valuable method to improve medication safety. This study used smart pump medication logs and reporting software to identify cancelled infusions and resolutions of infusions alerts to characterize near-miss infusion pump errors. The study identified a high number of lookalike-soundalike near-miss errors. Analyses indicate that incorrect medication and wrong dose selections account for approximately 22% of all cancelled infusions.
Kulju S, Morrish W, King LA, et al. J Patient Saf. 2022;18:e290-e296.
Patient misidentification can lead to serious patient safety risks. Researchers used patient safety reports and root cause analyses (RCA) to characterize patient misidentification events in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The incidence of patient misidentification in inpatient and outpatient settings was similar and most commonly attributed to the absence of two unique patient identifiers. The authors identified three strategies to mitigate misidentification based on high-reliability principles: (1) develop policies for patient identification throughout the continuum of care, (2) develop policies to report and monitor patient misidentification measures, and (3) apply quality and process improvement tools to patient identification emphasizing use by front line staff.  
This Primer provides an overview of the history and current status of the patient safety field and key definitions and concepts. It links to other Patient Safety Primers that discuss the concepts in more detail.
Pfoh ER, Engineer L, Singh H, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17:e121-e127.
Patient safety in ambulatory care is emerging as an area of focus for safety improvement. This review discusses the importance of using near misses as a learning opportunity in outpatient care. The authors describe the design of a near miss registry to collect information on factors that contribute to errors as a way to enable learning and improvement.
MedWatch Safety Alert. Silver Spring, MD: US Food and Drug Administration; July 30, 2015.
Look-alike and sound-alike drug names can contribute to confusion and result in medication errors. To raise awareness of potential wrong-patient errors due to similarity between two proprietary names, this announcement describes near misses with the drugs at the prescribing and dispensing stage and suggests clinicians use the generic names for the medications to reduce risk of patient harm.
Crane S, Sloane PD, Elder N, et al. J Am Board Fam Med. 2015;28:452-60.
This study describes the successful implementation of a Web-based reporting system for near-miss events in primary care practices. The most prevalent reports were breakdowns in office processes, with varying risk for adverse events, as found in prior studies of incident reporting. Although near-miss reporting can stimulate improvement efforts, it is not a precise method for detecting safety problems.
Harrison R, Lawton R, Stewart K. Clin Med (Lond). 2014;14:585-90.
According to this survey study, physicians involved in adverse events experience personal and professional harm, and existing reporting practices are not helpful. These findings suggest that despite prior work, systems to address physician needs remain inadequate. Dr. Albert Wu discussed the second victim phenomenon in a past AHRQ WebM&M interview.
Boyle TA, Bishop AC, Overmars C, et al. J Pharm Pract. 2015;28:442-9.
This analysis of community pharmacy practices found that while most have reporting of medication errors and near misses in place, few establish improvement plans or apply systems approaches to address errors. This finding underscores the need to learn from events and implement changes to resolve safety issues.