Jaam M, Naseralallah LM, Hussain TA, et al. PLoS One. 2021;16:e0253588.
Including pharmacists can improve patient safety across the medication prescribing continuum. This review identified twelve pharmacist-led educational interventions aimed at improving medication safety. The phase, educational strategy, patient population, and audience varied across studies; however most showed some reductions in medication errors.
Chang T-P, Bery AK, Wang Z, et al. Diagnosis (Berl). 2022;9:96-106.
A missed or delayed diagnosis of stroke increases the risk of permanent disability or death. This retrospective study compared rates of misdiagnosed stroke in patients presenting to general care or specialty care who were initially diagnosed with “benign dizziness”. Patients with dizziness who presented to general care were more likely to be misdiagnosed than those presenting to specialty care. Interventions to improve stroke diagnosis in emergency departments may also be successful in general care clinics.
Panda N, Sinyard RD, Henrich N, et al. J Patient Saf. 2021;17:256-263.
The COVID-19 pandemic has presented numerous challenges for the healthcare workforce, including redeploying personnel to different locations or retraining personnel for different tasks. Researchers interviewed hospital leaders from health systems in the United States, United Kingdom, New Zealand, Singapore and South Korea about redeployment of health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The authors discuss effective practices and lessons learned preparing for and executing workforce redeployment, as well as concerns regarding redeployed personnel
Naseralallah LM, Hussain TA, Jaam M, et al. Int J Clin Pharm. 2020;42:979-994.
Pediatric patients are particularly vulnerable to medication errors. In this systematic review, the authors evaluated the evidence on the effectiveness of clinical pharmacist interventions on medication error rates in hospitalized pediatric patients. Results of a meta-analysis found that pharmacist involvement was associated with a significant reduction in the overall rate of medication errors in this population.
Lee SE, Dahinten VS. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2020;52:544-552.
This descriptive study used data from the AHRQ Survey on Patient Safety Culture to explore the effects of safety culture on nurses’ perceptions of safety. The researchers found that all 11 safety culture factors were associated with nurse-perceived patient safety; staffing adequacy and hospital management support were the strongest predictors of perceived patient safety.
Haghani M, Bliemer MCJ, Goerlandt F, et al. Safety Sci. 2020;129:104806.
This review discusses the most common research on COVID-19 and safety issues to date (e.g., occupational safety of heath professionals, patient transport safety) and identifies several safety issues attributable to the pandemic which have been relatively understudied, including issues around supply-chain safety and occupational safety of non-healthcare essential workers.
Badreldin HA, Atallah B. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020;17:1946-1949.
This article discusses global drug shortages due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the impact on patient outcomes and the role of pharmacists and policymakers in mitigating emerging drug shortages related to the pandemic.
Johnson CD, Green BN, Konarski-Hart KK, et al. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2020;43:403.e1-403.e21.
An international sample of chiropractic practitioners described actions taken by their practices in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Practitioners discuss using innovative strategies such as telehealth to continue providing patient-centered care while complying with local regulations.
Using a social and behavioral sciences perspective, the authors present insights for aligning behavior with recommendations from experts for managing the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact. Topics include threat perception, leadership, individual and collective interests, science communication, social context, and stress and coping.
Tartari E, Saris K, Kenters N, et al. PLoS One. 2020;15.
Presenteeism among healthcare workers can lead to burnout and healthcare-associated infections, but prior research has found that significant numbers of healthcare workers continue to work despite having influenza-like illness. This study surveyed 249 healthcare workers and 284 non-healthcare workers from 49 countries about their behaviors when experiencing influenza-like illness between October 2018 and January 2019. Overall, 59% of workers would continue to work when experiencing influenza-like illness, and the majority of healthcare workers (89.2-99.2%) and non-healthcare workers (80-96.5%) would continue to work with mild symptoms, such as a mild cough, fatigue or sinus cold. Fewer non-healthcare workers (16.2%) than healthcare workers (26.9%) would continue working with fever alone.
Perea-Pérez B, Labajo-González E, Acosta-Gío AE, et al. J Patient Saf. 2020;16.
Based on malpractice claims data in Spain, the authors propose eleven recommendations to mitigate preventable adverse events in dentistry. These recommendations include developing a culture of safety, improving the quality of clinical records, safe prescribing practices, using checklists in oral surgical procedures, and having an action plan for life-threatening emergencies in the dental clinic.
Kim H-E, Kim HH, Han B-K, et al. The Lancet Digital Health. 2020.
There is increasing interest in the use of artificial intelligence (AI) to improve breast cancer detection. This study developed and validated an AI algorithm using mammography readings from five institutions in South Korea, the United States, and the United Kingdom. The AI algorithm alone showed better diagnostic performance in breast cancer detection compared to radiologists without AI assistance (area under the curve [AUC] of 0.94 vs. 0.81, p<0.0001) or radiologists with AI assistance (0.88; p<0.0001). AI improved performance of radiologists and was better at detecting mass cancers, distortion, asymmetry, or node-negative cancers compared with radiologist alone.
Ardenne M, Reitnauer PG. Arzneimittel-Forschung. 1975;25:1369-79.
This special issue reviews research initiatives exploring persistent challenges associated with the prescription drug misuse epidemic and strategies to monitor and reduce its persistence. Topics covered include the role of the pharmacist in addressing opioid misuse, physician–pharmacist collaboration to improve pain management, and community pharmacy monitoring of opioid dispensing.
Chui MA, Pohjanoksa-Mäntylä M, Snyder ME, eds. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2019;15(7):811-906.
Medication safety is a worldwide challenge. This special issue discusses factors affecting the reliability of the ordering, dispensing, and administration of medications across a range of environments. Articles cover topics such as the need to deepen understanding of safety in community pharmacies, the use of smart pumps for high-alert medications, and the international effort to reduce medication-related harm.
Tschandl P, Codella N, Akay BN, et al. Lancet Oncol. 2019;20:938-947.
Machine learning may have the potential to improve clinical decision-making and diagnosis. In this study, machine-learning algorithms generally performed better than human experts in accurately diagnosing 7 types of pigmented skin lesions and the top 3 algorithms performed better than the 27 physicians.
Han S, Shanafelt TD, Sinsky CA, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2019;170:784-790.
Burnout may adversely affect patient safety as well as physician wellness. While health care organizations are increasingly focused on measuring burnout and implementing targeted interventions for improvement, the financial costs associated with physician burnout are not well described. In this study, researchers estimate that in the United States, $4.6 billion in costs are incurred from physician turnover and reduced work hours related to burnout on an annual basis. They estimate that the cost for organizations is about $7600 per physician each year. These findings suggest that physician burnout is associated with substantial economic burden. An Annual Perspective discussed burnout and its effect on patient safety.
Patel S, Robertson B, McConachie I. Anaesthesia. 2019;74:904-914.
Medication administration mistakes can result in serious patient harm. This review explored human factors that contribute to spinal anesthesia administration errors. The authors documented organizational, supervisory, system, and individual factors that contributed to errors. They recommend strategies to prevent such incidents, including the use of double checks and improved labeling practices.
Prior research on the relationship between culture of safety and adverse events has produced conflicting results. Using culture of safety survey data from five long-term care facilities, researchers found an association between improved safety culture scores and a decreased risk of certain adverse events.
Chew KS, van Merrienboer JJG, Durning SJ. BMC Med Educ. 2019;19:18.
Metacognition is an approach to enhance diagnostic thinking. This study used focus groups to assess physicians' and medical students' impressions of a metacognitive diagnostic checklist. Participants found the checklist to be applicable and usable, and the authors conclude that it should be tested in a clinical setting.
Riskin A, Bamberger P, Erez A, et al. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2019;45:358-367.
Prior studies have demonstrated that rude behavior undermines patient safety. This study used a smartphone application to collect reports of rudeness directed toward nurses. These data were analyzed in conjunction with the hospital's hand hygiene and medication protocol compliance data as well as adverse event reports to determine if rudeness affected these safety outcomes. Participants also reported whether rudeness incidents influenced their cognition or their teamwork. Although rudeness was associated with worse self-reported cognition and teamwork, investigators did not observe differences in reported adverse events or changes in hand hygiene or medication protocol adherence related to rudeness exposure. A past PSNet perspective discussed how organizations are seeking to rehabilitate persistently disruptive clinicians.
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