The surgical safety checklist and patient outcomes after surgery: a prospective observational cohort study, systematic review and meta-analysis.
Surgical checklists have been shown to improve safety outcomes in randomized trials, but implementation studies have not uniformly demonstrated benefit. This study included a large, multicountry observational cohort of surgical outcomes before and after implementation of a checklist. Mortality declined after checklist implementation, but the rate of postoperative complications remained unchanged. Investigators also conducted a meta-analysis of surgical checklist studies (excluding those that paired the checklist with other interventions) on postoperative mortality and complications. This synthesis of published studies suggests that checklists improved mortality and complications overall. Lucian Leape and David Urbach discussed their perspectives on surgical safety checklists in past PSNet interviews.