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Shannon SE, Foglia MB, Hardy M, Gallagher TH. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2009;35:5-12.
Shannon SE ; Foglia MB ; Hardy M; et al. Disclosing errors to patients: perspectives of registered nurses. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2009; 35: 5-12
This study conducted focus groups and found that nurses often feel left out of disclosure conversations, which they believe should be viewed as a team event rather than as a patient–physician conversation.
Holding out for an apology.
"Saying sorry": some strategies for effective apology within the workplace.
Cleary M, Lees D, Lopez V. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2018;39:980-982.
"It matters what I think, not what you say": scientific evidence for a medical error disclosure competence (MEDC) model.
Hannawa AF, Frankel RM. J Patient Saf. 2018 Jul 20; [Epub ahead of print].
Patients' experiences with communication-and-resolution programs after medical injury.
Moore J, Bismark M, Mello MM. JAMA Intern Med. 2017;177:1595-1603.
Nurses' communication of safety events to nursing home residents and families.
Wagner LM, Driscoll L, Darlington JL, et al. J Gerontol Nurs. 2018;44:25-32.
London, England: NHS Resolution; 2017.
ACOG Committee Opinion #681: disclosure and discussion of adverse events.
ACOG Committee on Patient Safety and Quality Improvement and Committee on Professional Liability. Obstet Gynecol. 2016;128:e257-e261.
Patients and families as teachers: a mixed methods assessment of a collaborative learning model for medical error disclosure and prevention.
Langer T, Martinez W, Browning DM, Varrin P, Sarnoff Lee B, Bell SK. BMJ Qual Saf. 2016;25:615-625.
When a surgeon should just say 'I'm sorry'.
Cohen E. CNN. March 24, 2016.
An experimental study of medical error explanations: do apology, empathy, corrective action, and compensation alter intentions and attitudes?
Nazione S, Pace K. J Health Commun. 2015;20:1422-1432.
Apologies following an adverse medical event: the importance of focusing on the consumer's needs.
Allan A, McKillop D, Dooley J, Allan MM, Preece DA. Patient Educ Couns. 2015;98:1058-1062.
Shining a Light: Safer Health Care Through Transparency.
Boston, MA: National Patient Safety Foundation Lucian Leape Institute; January 2015.
Patient- and family-centered care: error disclosure and investigation.
Connor M, Wayman KI, Garcia C, Fischer PR; Consortium for Maximizing Family-Centered Care. Patient Saf Qual Healthc. September/October 2014;11:36,38-40,42.
The association of hospital quality ratings with adverse events.
Weissman JS, López L, Schneider EC, Epstein AM, Lipsitz S, Weingart SN. Int J Qual Health Care. 2014;26:129-135.
Communication-and-resolution programs: the challenges and lessons learned from six early adopters.
Mello MM, Boothman RC, McDonald T, et al. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014;33:20-29.
How policy makers can smooth the way for communication-and-resolution programs.
Sage WM, Gallagher TH, Armstrong S, et al. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014;33:11-19.
It's time to say sorry.
Coombes R. BMJ Podcast. June 1, 2012.
Apology for errors: whose responsibility?
Leape LL. Front Health Serv Manage. 2012;28:3-12.
More than words: patients' views on apology and disclosure when things go wrong in cancer care.
Mazor KM, Greene SM, Roblin D, et al. Patient Educ Couns. 2013;90:341-346.
Patients' and family members' views on how clinicians enact and how they should enact incident disclosure: the "100 patient stories" qualitative study.
Iedema R, Allen S, Britton K, et al. BMJ. 2011;343:d4423.
Shedding light on the dark side of doctor–patient interactions: verbal and nonverbal messages physicians communicate during error disclosures.
Hannawa AF. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;84:344-351.
Talking with Patients and Families about Medical Error: A Guide for Education and Practice.
Truog RD, Browning DM, Johnson JA, Gallagher TH. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press; 2011. ISBN: 0801898048.
The faces of medical error...from tears to transparency.
The Empowered Patient Coalition; 2010.
A new structure of attention? Open disclosure of adverse events to patients and their families.
Iedema R, Jorm C, Wakefield J, Ryan C, Sorensen R. J Lang Social Psychol. 2009;28:139-157.
Health care professionals' views of implementing a policy of open disclosure of errors.
Sorensen R, Iedema R, Piper D, Manias E, Williams A, Tuckett A. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2008;13:227-232.
PSNET: Patient Safety Network
PSNet is produced for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality by a team of editors at the University of California, San Francisco with guidance from a prominent Technical Expert/Advisory Panel. The AHRQ PSNet site was designed and implemented by Silverchair.
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