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- Diagnostic Errors 1
- Discontinuities, Gaps, and Hand-Off Problems 1
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Legislation/Regulation > Pennsylvania Legislation
General Assembly of Pennsylvania. SB968 (2007).
This bill requires that Pennsylvania hospitals and nursing homes implement an internal infection control plan and report hospital-acquired infections.
May H. Salt Lake Tribune. August 18, 2008.
This article examines 2007 state health data on never events in the context of a label-related medical error that resulted in a recent death.
Gould M. Health Service Journal. September 15, 2008:22-24.
This article describes the state of general practitioner incident reporting in the United Kingdom.
Health-Care-Associated Infections in Hospitals: An Overview of State Reporting Programs and Individual Hospital Initiatives to Reduce Certain Infections.
Washington, DC: United States Government Accountability Office; September 2008. Publication GAO-08-808.
This report describes state reporting programs for health care–associated infection (HAI), hospital initiatives to reduce MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), and challenges encountered in HAI reduction.
Levinson DR. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Inspector General; December 2008. Report No. OEI-06-07-00471.
The Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 mandated that the Office of Inspector General (OIG) report to Congress a series of analyses with the first related to understanding the issues around hospital-based adverse events. This related and simultaneously released report identifies and describes state reporting systems and how they utilize the captured information. The report concludes that as of January 2008, 26 states had reporting systems in place, 23 states used the data to hold individual hospitals accountable, and 18 states reported using the data to promote learning and develop prevention strategies. A past AHRQ WebM&M perspective discusses the role of state reporting systems in advancing patient safety.
The High Costs of Weak Compliance With the New York State Hospital Adverse Event Reporting and Tracking System.
Thompson WC Jr. New York, NY: Office of the New York City Comptroller, Office of Policy Management; 2009.
This report assesses the New York State Department of Health's New York Patient Occurrence and Tracking System (NYPORTS). It observes trends of adverse event reporting, finds that New York City hospitals report dramatically fewer events per discharge, explores reasons for underreporting, and discusses the impact on safety improvement efforts.
Journal Article > Study
Medication errors: how reliable are the severity ratings reported to the National Reporting and Learning System?
Williams SD, Ashcroft DM. Int J Qual Health Care. 2009;21:316-320.
Assessment of the severity of medication errors reported to the National Reporting and Learning System (the United Kingdom's voluntary incident reporting system) varied widely depending on whether the reporter was a nurse, pharmacy technician, pharmacist, or physician, and whether the reporter personally witnessed the error.
London, UK: National Patient Safety Agency; 2009. ISBN: 9781906624088.
This publication analyzes 72,482 medication incidents reported to the National Health Service and highlights areas for improvement and prevention.
Trenton, NJ: New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services; March 2012.
Journal Article > Study
Adverse drug events among hospitalized Medicare patients: epidemiology and national estimates from a new approach to surveillance.
Classen DC, Jaser L, Budnitz DS. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2010;36:12-21, AP1-AP9.
Adverse drug events (ADEs) are the most common type of errors in hospitalized patients. This study used data from the Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (which conducts detailed chart reviews of hospitalized Medicare patients) to arrive at national estimates for the incidence of ADEs in the Medicare patient population. Errors were common among patients receiving high-risk medications such as warfarin, insulin, and heparin—in fact, nearly 1 in 7 patients receiving heparin experienced an ADE. Medication errors were associated with an increased length of stay, as demonstrated in prior research. A related editorial discusses the MPSMS as an example of a patient-centered approach to detecting harmful errors. A case of an error associated with insulin prescribing is discussed in an AHRQ WebM&M commentary.
Salt Lake City, UT: Utah Department of Health, Utah Hospitals & Health Systems Association, and HealthInsight; March 10, 2010.
This brief provides information on 101 sentinel events reported to the state of Utah in 2009. The report also includes background on efforts to address such incidents.
Valencia MJ. Boston Globe. March 10, 2011.
This newspaper article reports on a fatal medication error involving an anticoagulant overdose.
Lucado J, Paez K, Elixhauser A. HCUP Statistical Brief #109. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; April 2011.
Journal Article > Study
Patient safety incidents associated with obesity: a review of reports to the National Patient Safety Agency and recommendations for hospital practice.
Booth CM, Moore CE, Eddleston J, Sharman M, Atkinson D, Moore JA. Postgrad Med J. 2011;87:694-699.
The obesity epidemic is considered an urgent public health issue in Europe and the United States. Although morbidly obese patients are prone to a variety of medical issues, no study to date has evaluated patient safety risks in this population. This retrospective analysis of errors voluntarily reported to the United Kingdom's National Patient Safety Agency documents more than 380 errors and near misses in which obesity was considered a contributing factor. The majority of errors were partly attributable to inadequate equipment for caring for such patients, particularly in the surgical and critical care environments. Based on these data, the authors advocate for multidisciplinary approaches to systematizing care for morbidly obese patients. The challenges of caring for obese patients are discussed in an AHRQ WebM&M commentary, which examined a case of an ultimately fatal delayed diagnosis in a morbidly obese woman.
Avery L, Bennett R, Brinsley-Rainisch K, et al. Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; October 9, 2018.
Journal Article > Study
Influence of state laws mandating reporting of healthcare-associated infections: the case of central line–associated bloodstream infections.
Pakyz AL, Edmond MB. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34:780-784.
Twenty-seven states mandate reporting of central line–associated bloodstream infections. However, these regulations do not appear to have any effect on infection rates.
Web Resource > Multi-use Website
Drawing from data reported by the Leapfrog Hospital Survey, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), this website provides grades for hospitals in the United States based on their safety. The 2018 results are the sixth generation of the scores, which now include a medication error score. A related report from the Armstrong Institute examines avoidable death associated with grading hospitals.
Wright S. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Inspector General; July 2012. Report No. OEI-06-09-00092.
This report built on earlier research to examine rates of adverse events reported to state-level reporting systems compared with hospital data. It found that, even in states with required hospital reporting of adverse events, only about one in nine events is reported to the state. Because few of the events were found in each hospital's incident reporting system, the investigators concluded that the low rate of reporting was likely due to hospital failure to identify events rather than hospitals failing to report known events.
Harrow, Middlesex, UK: The Patients Association; 2013.
This publication provides patient and family accounts of incidents involving inadequate care or harm and highlights the need for improvements recommended in a National Health Services report.
Journal Article > Commentary
Public reporting of health care–associated surveillance data: recommendations from the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee.
Talbot TR, Bratzler DW, Carrico RM, et al; Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Ann Intern Med. 2013;159:631-635.