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- Study 5
- Book/Report 11
- Legislation/Regulation 2
- Newspaper/Magazine Article 10
- Toolkit 1
- Web Resource 8
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- Culture of Safety 1
- Education and Training 1
- Error Reporting and Analysis
- Human Factors Engineering 3
Legal and Policy Approaches
- Regulation 17
- Quality Improvement Strategies 5
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- Transparency and Accountability 1
- Device-related Complications 5
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Non-Health Care Professionals
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Search results for "Legal and Policy Approaches"
- Governmental Reporting
- Legal and Policy Approaches
Jewett C. Kaiser Health News. May 3, 2019.
Transparency has been heralded as a cornerstone to improvement in health care. This news article reports on a government alternative summary reporting program that allowed medical device makers to conceal safety events and malfunction reports associated with medical devices. A new program that expands access to information about device-related failures will be put in place.
AHRQ National Scorecard on Hospital-Acquired Conditions Updated Baseline Rates and Preliminary Results 2014–2017.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; January 2019.
Hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) represent a significant source of preventable harm to patients. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services financially penalizes hospitals with increased numbers of HACs through the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program. This policy of nonpayment has prompted hospitals to focus significant resources on preventing HACs. This AHRQ report found a reduction in HACs from 99 per 1000 acute care discharges to 86 per 1000 discharges between 2014 and 2017, representing a decrease in 910,000 HACs and savings of $7.7 billion. Declines in certain HACs such as adverse drug events and Clostridium difficile infections were noted to be more significant as compared to others. A past WebM&M commentary highlighted the clinical significance of HACs and described an incident involving a patient who developed a pressure ulcer while in the hospital.
Mohr H, Weiss M. Associated Press. November 27, 2018.
Journal Article > Study
Al Mohajer M, Joiner KA, Nix DE. Acad Med. 2018;93:1827-1832.
The Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program (HACRP) was established by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and withholds payment to hospitals for several hospital-acquired conditions deemed to be preventable sources of patient harm. Prior research has shown that teaching hospitals, hospitals caring for more complicated and high-risk patients, and safety-net hospitals may be more likely to experience financial penalties under HACRP compared to nonteaching hospitals caring for less sick patients. These findings raised concerns regarding the possible unintended consequences related to pay-for-performance. Researchers sought to identify factors associated with HACRP performance and penalties. They found that teaching institutions and hospitals with higher case-mix index, length of stay, and those located in the Northeast or Western United States were more likely to receive penalties under the CMS program. A previous WebM&M commentary discussed the unintended consequences associated with publicly reported health care quality measures.
Journal Article > Study
Adverse effects of the Medicare PSI-90 hospital penalty system on revenue-neutral hospital-acquired conditions.
Padula WV, Black JM, Davidson PM, Kang SY, Pronovost PJ. J Patient Saf. 2018 Jul 17; [Epub ahead of print].
The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) first implemented a policy of nonpayment for specific hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) in 2008. In 2014, they implemented a value-based purchasing program (the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program) that reduces reimbursement to hospitals with elevated rates of a range of HACs. The program measures HAC rates by a composite Patient Safety Indicator (PSI90), which includes 10 specific PSIs. This study examined HAC rates after implementation of the reimbursement penalty program at a cohort of academic medical centers. Overall, HAC rates declined over the 2 years following implementation of the program, with only rates of pressure ulcers increasing. Another recent study also found declines in HAC rates associated with CMS nonpayment initiatives, and data from AHRQ has also demonstrated significant reductions in HACs over the past 5 years. Nevertheless, concerns persist about the validity of using PSI for patient safety measurement over time, and other studies have found no effect of reimbursement policies on other HACs that are not included in PSI90 (such as specific health care–associated infections). A past PSNet perspective discussed the effect of pay-for-performance and other financial incentives for patient safety.
St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Department of Health; March 2019.
The National Quality Forum has defined 29 never events—patient safety problems that should never occur, such as wrong-site surgery and patient falls. Since 2003, Minnesota hospitals have been required to report such incidents. The 2018 report summarizes information about 384 adverse events that were reported and found pressure ulcers and invasive procedure events increased, while fall-related deaths decreased. Reports from previous years are also available.
Rau J. Kaiser Health News. July 6, 2017.
System failures contribute to recurring problems in health care environments. This news article spotlights how lack of follow-up or action related to inspection reports that have uncovered factors in long-term care facilities that contribute to inadequate care can enable poorly performing nursing homes to remain in operation.
Preventable tragedies: superbugs and how ineffective monitoring of medical device safety fails patients.
US Senate Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Committee. January 13, 2016.
Insufficient sterilization of duodenoscopes and other medical equipment has been linked to health care–associated infection outbreaks. This report summarizes findings from a government investigation into existing methods for monitoring and reporting device problems and provides recommendations for Congress, hospitals, and the Food and Drug Administration to augment identification and prevention of safety issues associated with medical devices.
Fourth Report of Session 2014–15. House of Commons Health Committee. London, England: The Stationery Office; January 13, 2015. Publication HC 350.
Complaints are a proactive way to monitor and address recurring problems that may result in adverse events and system failures. This report discusses progress achieved through complaint response efforts in the United Kingdom and provides recommendations to augment how complaints are managed to develop further improvements.
Levinson DR. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Inspector General; January 2015. Report No. OEI-01-13-00400.
A widely-reported meningitis outbreak in the United States uncovered quality and safety issues associated with the use of compounded sterile preparations. This publication describes an analysis of five accreditation organizations and their ability to provide oversight and inspection of Medicare hospitals that contract with compounding entities. The authors offer recommendations to help hospitals determine if their compounded sterile preparations contracts ensure products are prepared safely for use, including targeted training for surveyors related to compounding and improved contracting processes.
Koba M. Fortune. January 6, 2015.
O'Donnell J. USA Today. August 6, 2014.
This newspaper article reports on changes to publicly reported data on the Hospital Compare Web site. Several avoidable hospital-acquired conditions, such as air embolism or retained foreign objects, are no longer included. Working with the National Quality Forum, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) decided to modify the list to make it easier for consumers to use and understand.
Cohn M. Baltimore Sun. July 26, 2014.
This news article reports weaknesses in a Maryland reporting program, including poor understanding about which errors should be reported and lack of regulations regarding disclosure. Limited public access to comprehensive incident reports and insufficient performance measurement hinder consumers' ability to select hospitals based on safety.
Harrow, Middlesex, UK: The Patients Association; 2013.
This publication provides patient and family accounts of incidents involving inadequate care or harm and highlights the need for improvements recommended in a National Health Services report.
Journal Article > Study
Influence of state laws mandating reporting of healthcare-associated infections: the case of central line–associated bloodstream infections.
Pakyz AL, Edmond MB. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2013;34:780-784.
Twenty-seven states mandate reporting of central line–associated bloodstream infections. However, these regulations do not appear to have any effect on infection rates.
Valencia MJ. Boston Globe. March 10, 2011.
This newspaper article reports on a fatal medication error involving an anticoagulant overdose.
Opportunities and Recommendations for State–Federal Coordination to Improve Health System Performance: A Focus on Patient Safety.
Buxbaum J. Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy; January 2010.
This briefing summarizes recommendations from a roundtable of health policy leaders, who selected the following areas as foci for initial federal–state coordination of safety efforts: reducing health care–associated infections, decreasing preventable hospital readmissions, and minimizing hospitalization for ambulatory conditions.
Wright S. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Inspector General; January 5, 2010. Report No. OEI-06-09-00360.
Tools/Toolkit > Multi-use Website
Portland, ME: National Academy for State Health Policy.
This online toolkit provides sample documents, policies, and Web site links related to the 27 states that have implemented adverse event reporting initiatives.
The High Costs of Weak Compliance With the New York State Hospital Adverse Event Reporting and Tracking System.
Thompson WC Jr. New York, NY: Office of the New York City Comptroller, Office of Policy Management; 2009.
This report assesses the New York State Department of Health's New York Patient Occurrence and Tracking System (NYPORTS). It observes trends of adverse event reporting, finds that New York City hospitals report dramatically fewer events per discharge, explores reasons for underreporting, and discusses the impact on safety improvement efforts.