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Journal Article > Review
Pattni N, Arzola C, Malavade A, Varmani S, Krimus L, Friedman Z. Br J Anaesth. 2019;122:233-244.
Effective teamwork and communication are critical to ensuring patient safety in the busy environment of the operating room. This review examined the evidence on preparing staff to challenge authority in the perioperative environment. Common themes that affect speaking up included hierarchy, organizational culture, and education. Teaching that promotes open communication in the postgraduate environment and utilizing tactics such as simulation training can help address barriers to challenging authority.
Journal Article > Study
Communication failures in the operating room: an observational classification of recurrent types and effects.
Lingard L, Espin S, Whyte S, et al. Qual Saf Health Care. 2004;13:330-334.
This study used direct observation of 48 surgical procedures to characterize deficits in communication among team members. Problematic communication occurred in nearly one-third of all exchanges between team members, and appeared to have direct effects on patient safety through increasing tension and creating the need for workarounds. Communication and teamwork in the operating room was the subject of a classic study of safety culture.