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Legal and Policy Approaches
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United States of America
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- Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) 59
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Search results for "Legal and Policy Approaches"
- Government Resource
- Legal and Policy Approaches
Legislation/Regulation > Colorado Legislation
Pettersen B, Tate J, Tipper K, McKean H. Colorado Senate Bill 19-201.
Communication-and-resolution mechanisms are seen as important approaches to improving transparency and healing after an adverse event. This state bill, referred to as the "Colorado Candor Act," protects conversations between organizations, clinicians, patient, and families from legal discoverability and outlines criteria to guarantee that protection.
Hoffman RM, Mirarchi FL. PA-PSRS Patient Saf Advis. June 2018;15.
Patient harm associated with advance directive interpretation errors is rare, but these mistakes can have negative psychological consequences for care teams, patients, and families. Discussing research exploring factors that contribute to these misunderstandings, this article recommends actions to help patients articulate end-of-life care preferences and ensure those instructions are accurately shared with their families and the clinical teams acting on their behalf.
Williams N. Department of Health and Social Care. London, England: Crown Copyright; 2018.
Accountability for errors and organizational assessment of failures affect incident reporting. This policy review explores how potential legal ramifications stemming from investigations of negligence can hinder improvement efforts and outlines recommendations to support safety culture in health care.
Journal Article > Government Resource
García MC, Dodek AB, Kowalski T, et al. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016;65:1125-1131.
Adverse drug events related to opioid medications are a significant patient safety concern. This analysis of insurer claims data demonstrated that changing opioid prescribing requirements, including implementing patient–provider agreements, requiring prior authorization, and enforcing quantity limits, led to a decline in opioid prescribing. The authors recommend that insurers implement policies from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention opioid guidelines to improve safety.
Web Resource > Government Resource
National Health Service England.
The National Health Service (NHS) has been a global leader in patient safety improvement since the publication of An Organization With a Memory in 2000. This government resource combines several NHS initiatives—such as the National Reporting and Learning System, Critical Incident Framework and the Advancing Change Team—to oversee and provide support for clinicians.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Priorities in Focus. March 2016.
The National Quality Strategy is part of AHRQ's ongoing efforts to enhance patient safety. This brief summarizes the results of the Partnership for Patients program and other initiatives working toward achieving the goals of the National Quality Strategy, including reducing hospital-acquired conditions, preventable readmissions, and patient harm.
Washington, DC: United States Government Accountability Office; January 5, 2016. Publication GAO-16-158.
The Veterans Health Administration faces various challenges to providing safe care, including poor continuity during transitions to different locations which can result in inappropriate discontinuation of medications that patients require. This government report discuses efforts to reduce gaps in medication access and suggests developing clear policies to prevent patient harm in this population.
Legislation/Regulation > Government Resource
Medicare and Medicaid programs; reform of requirements for long-term care facilities; proposed rule.
Federal Register. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services. Baltimore, MD: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. July 16, 2015;80:42167-42269.
Poor safety culture and lack of available resources to provide high-quality care can hinder safety in long-term care facilities. This set of regulations will revise requirements for long-term care facilities in areas such as clinical practice standards, service delivery, patient-centeredness, and infection control. The deadline for officially submitting comments on the proposed rule was September 14, 2015.
Legislation/Regulation > Federal Legislation
HR 3230, 113th Congress (2014).
The Veterans Affairs (VA) health system has both achieved success and struggled to provide safe care to its patients. In an effort to address shortcomings in care, this bill allocates additional funding to the VA. Goals of this legislation include regulating and improving staffing levels, enabling veterans to access non-VA facilities, and enhancing patient access to telemedicine.
Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Primary Health and Aging, 113th Cong (July 17, 2014). (Testimony of John James, PhD; Ashish Jha, MD, MPH; Tejal Gandhi, MD, MPH; Peter Pronovost, MD, PhD; Joanne Disch, PhD, RN; Lisa McGiffert.)
A group of patient safety experts, including Drs. Peter Pronovost, Ashish Jha, and Tejal Gandhi, testified to Congress that more must be done to track and prevent widespread patient harms. The title of the hearing was based on the seminal study estimating that as many as 200,000 to 400,000 patients experience harms that contribute to their death each year. The medical experts recounted the lack of significant progress since the landmark Institute of Medicine report in 1999, and they called on Congress to task the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with tracking medical errors and patient harm. Dr. John James, a scientist who became engaged in patient safety efforts following the death of his son due to medical errors, recommended that lawmakers establish a National Patient Safety Board, similar to the current National Transportation Safety Board. A prior AHRQ WebM&M perspective discussed the many challenges of measuring patient safety.
Washington, DC: United States Government Accountability Office; January 28, 2010. Publication GAO-10-281.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Fed Register. September 2, 2009;74:45457-45458.
This announcement and accompanying Web site provide version 1.0 of the standardized guidelines for health care agencies to voluntarily report patient safety and health care information. Empowered by the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005, AHRQ-funded Patient Safety Organizations will analyze and organize the data.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; July 2008. AHRQ Publication Nos. 080034 (1-4).
The 115 articles freely available in this latest issue of AHRQ's Advances in Patient Safety represent the state of the art in patient safety. Serving as an update and extension to the prior volume, the articles are grouped into four major content areas—assessment, culture and redesign, performance and tools, and technology and medication safety—and are freely available online through the link below.
Web Resource > Government Resource
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
In order to encourage "voluntary, provider-driven initiatives to improve the safety and quality of patient care," the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is spearheading the certification of Patient Safety Organizations (PSOs)—public or private organizations with expertise in the analysis of patient safety and hazards in health care. This Web site provides information on the rules governing PSOs and the requirements for an organization to be listed as a PSO. Development of PSOs was authorized by the 2005 Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; February 2005. AHRQ Publication Nos. 050021 (1-4).
With 4 volumes and 140 articles (all of which are freely available through the link below), this expansive collection of literature illustrates the progress made since the 1999 Institute of Medicine's report, To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. The efforts represent a successful collaboration between the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the Department of Defense-Health Affairs in meeting the challenge of improving patient safety knowledge, research, and implementation.
Greater Focus on Credentialing Needed to Prevent Disqualified Providers From Delivering Patient Care.
Washington, DC: United States Government Accountability Office; February 2019. Publication GAO-19-6.
Gaps in responding to concerns about clinician competence can result in care failures. This report examined Veterans Health Administration (VHA) actions associated with National Practitioner Data Bank records and found variation in how organizations responded to that information including some instances where VHA facilities inappropriately hired providers. The Government Accountability Office makes seven recommendations to address this problem.
AHRQ National Scorecard on Hospital-Acquired Conditions Updated Baseline Rates and Preliminary Results 2014–2017.
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; January 2019.
Hospital-acquired conditions (HACs) represent a significant source of preventable harm to patients. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services financially penalizes hospitals with increased numbers of HACs through the Hospital-Acquired Condition Reduction Program. This policy of nonpayment has prompted hospitals to focus significant resources on preventing HACs. This AHRQ report found a reduction in HACs from 99 per 1000 acute care discharges to 86 per 1000 discharges between 2014 and 2017, representing a decrease in 910,000 HACs and savings of $7.7 billion. Declines in certain HACs such as adverse drug events and Clostridium difficile infections were noted to be more significant as compared to others. A past WebM&M commentary highlighted the clinical significance of HACs and described an incident involving a patient who developed a pressure ulcer while in the hospital.
Notice of Intent to Publish Funding Opportunity Announcement to Improve Care Transitions Through the Use of Interoperable Health Information Technology (R01).
Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; January 28, 2019. AHRQ Publication No. NOT-HS-19-009.
The introduction of information technology has transformed health care. This notice of intent from AHRQ announces an upcoming funding opportunity to support research exploring the adoption of interoperable information technologies to improve communication during transitions. The pending funding will help to refine and develop methods to assess implementation success.
Journal Article > Government Resource
Scholl L, Seth P, Kariisa M, Wilson N, Baldwin G. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2019;67:1419-1427.
This Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report provides drug and opioid overdose death figures for 2016. The rate of overdose deaths continues to rise, with the largest increase due to synthetic opioids such as fentanyl. The report calls for enhancing prevention and response measures, including the use of naloxone.
Bethesda, MD: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health. May 21, 2018. PA-18-790; PA-18-791.