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From Safety-I to Safety-II: A White Paper.

Hollnagel E, Wears RL, Braithwaite J. Middelfart, Denmark: Resilient Health Care Net; 2015.

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August 5, 2015
Hollnagel E, Wears RL, Braithwaite J. Middelfart, Denmark: Resilient Health Care Net; 2015.

To enhance patient safety, researchers must consider complexity in health care settings. This white paper describes the difference between two approaches to improving safety, the first focuses on identifying causes and contributing factors to adverse events without considering human performance while the second considers variations in everyday performance to understand how things usually go right. The authors suggest that a combination of the approaches is necessary to achieve resilient systems to enhance safety.