Implementation science studies methods to promote integration of research findings and evidence into health care policy and practice. This systematic review examined which aspects of new safety practice implementations led to actual improvement. Researchers found that enhanced safety was associated with preparation for change, personnel capacity, and organizational receptiveness to change. Features of successful implementation efforts included change management fundamentals such as planning, teamwork, having champions, and tailoring to local context. This study sheds light on the well-known lag in translating research into practice, an under-studied but critical aspect of improving patient safety. A recent AHRQ WebM&M perspective discusses implementation of evidence-based practices and future avenues for patient safety research.