Journal Article
Review

Symptom–Disease Pair Analysis of Diagnostic Error (SPADE): a conceptual framework and methodological approach for unearthing misdiagnosis-related harms using big data.

Liberman AL, Newman-Toker DE. BMJ quality & safety. 2018;27:557-566.

Patient safety measurement remains challenging. This article describes a framework to address gaps in measuring diagnostic error. The authors propose utilizing big data to develop diagnostic performance dashboards and benchmarking tools that support proactive learning and improvement strategies.