Journal Article

Improving anesthesiologists' ability to speak up in the operating room: a randomized controlled experiment of a simulation-based intervention and a qualitative analysis of hurdles and enablers.

Raemer DB; Kolbe M; Minehart RD; Rudolph JW; Pian-Smith MC.

Speaking up about patient safety concerns remains challenging for health care professionals. This simulation study in the surgical setting found that a workshop on speaking up did not result in more speaking-up behavior, suggesting that changing safety culture requires more intensive interventions.